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will offer my project with this condition, that if I yet neither do I repent me of safe counsel; neither advise any thing that the council of war shall do I judge of the whole play by the first act. But think dangerous, it may be rejected; or if myself whether I counsel you the best, or for the best, be actor in any thing belonging to this project, duty bindeth me to offer to you my wishes. I wherein her majesty receives dishonour, that I said to your lordship last time; “ Martha, Martha, may answer it with my life. And yet your attendis ad plurima, unum sufficit.” Win the lordships know I am matched with those in queen; if this be not the beginning, of any other whom I have no particular interest; but I must course I see no end. And I will not now speak attribute their assenting to me, to my good hap, of favour of affection, but of other correspondence to take the better part. In my lord with whom I and agreeableness, which, whensoever it shall be joined, I find so much honour and service, as conjoined with the other of affection, I durst I doubt not but our unity in affection will make wager my life (let them make what prosopopaus a unity in council, action, and government. I they will of her majesty's nature) that in you she have troubled your lordships with a tedious letter, will come to the question of “quid fiet homini, begun in a day of leisure, and finished in the quem rex vult honorare ?" But how is it now? midst of our troublesome business. I pray your A man of a nature not to be ruled, that hath the lordships pardon the errors in it, and keep so advantage of my affection and knoweth it, of an honourable opinion of me as I be not condemned estate not grounded to his greatness, of a popular by you upon any complaints, advertisements, or reputation, of a military dependence: I demand reports, till I have given answer to them. For whether there can be a more dangerous image as the nature of my place is subject to envy and than this represented to any monarch living, much detraction, so a little body full of sharp humours more to a lady, and of her majesty's apprehension? is hardest kept in temper; and all the discontent- And is it not more evident than demonstration ed humours of an army do make their greatest itself, that whilst this impression continueth in her quarrel to him that commands the army, not so majesty's breast, you can find no other condition much for his faults as for because he brid than inventions to keep your estate bare and luw; their's. And so commending your good lordships crossing and disgracing your actions, extenuating to God's divine protection, 1 rest

and blasting of your merit, carping with contempt At your lordships' commandment, at your nature and fashions; breeding, nourishing,

Robert Essex. and fortifying such instruments as are most

factious against you, repulses and scorns of your friends and dependants that are true and steadfast,

winning and inveigling away from you such as TO MY LORD OF ESSEX, FROM MR. BACON.

are flexible and wavering, thrusting you into MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD,

odious employments and offices to supplant your I will no longer dissever part of that, which I reputation, abusing you, and feeding you with meant to have said to your lordship at Barnhelmes, dalliances and demonstrations, to divert you from from the exordium, which I then made. Where- descending into the serious consideration of your unto I will only add this; that I humbly desire own case ; yea, and percase venturing you in your lordship before you give access to my poor perilous and desperate enterprises. Herein it advice, to look about, even jealously a little, if may please your lordship to understand me; fur I you will, and to consider: First, whether I have mean nothing less than that these things should be not reason to think that your fortune comprehend- plotted and intended as in her majesty's royal eth mine: Next, whether I shist my counsel and mind towards you; I know the excellency of her do not « constare mihi;” for I am persuaded there nature too well. But I say, wheresoever the forare some would give you the same counsel now, merly described impression is taken in any king's which I shall, but that they should derogate from breast towards a subject, these other recited inthat which they have said heretofore : Thirdly, conveniences must of necessity of politic consewhether you have taken hurt at any time by my quences follow; in respect of such instruments careful and devoted counsel. For although I as are never failing about princes, which spy into remember well your lordship once told me that their humours and conceits, and second them; you having submitted upon my well-meant motion and not only second them, but in seconding at Nonsuch, (the place where you renewed a increase them; yea, and many times without their treaty with her majesty of obsequious kindness,) knowledge pursue them further than themselves she had taken advantage of it; yet I suppose you would.

Your lordship will ask the question do since believe, that it did much attemper a co}d wherewith the Athenians were wont to interrupt malignant humour then growing upon her majesty their orators when they exaggerated their dangers; toward your lordship, and hath done you good in “quid igitur agendum est ?" consequence.

And for being against it, now I will tell your lordship, “quæ mihi nunc in lately, that you should not estrange yourself, mentum veniunt;” supposing, nevertheless, that although I give pla ze to none in true gratulation, yourself, out of your own wisdom upon the case


with this plainness and liberty represented to you, or in commending fit persons for service for wars will find out better expedients and remedies. I it had been in season. And here, my lord, I wish a cure applied to every of the five former pray mistake me not. I am not to play now the impressions, which I will take not in order, but as part of a gown-man, that would franie you best to I think they are of weight.

mine own turn. I know what I owe you: I am For the removing the impression of your nature infinitely glad of this last journey, now it is past: to be opiniatre and not ruleable; first, and above the rather, because you may make so honourable all things I wish that all matters past, which can- a full point for a time. You have property good not be revoked, your lordship would turn alto- enough in that greatness. There is none can of gether upon insatisfaction, and not upon your many years ascend near you in competition. Benature or proper disposition. This string you sides, the disposing of the places and affairs both cannot upon every apt occasion harp upon too concerning the wars (you increasing in other much. Next, whereas I have noted you to fiy greatness) will of themselves flow to you; which and avoid (in some respect justly) the resem- will preserve that dependence in full measure. It blance or imitation of my Lord of Leicester and is a thing that of all things I would have you my Lord Chancellor Hatton; yet I am persuaded retain, the times considered. And the necessity (howsoever I wish your lordship as distant as you of the service, for other reason I know none. are from them in points of favour, integrity, But, I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in magnanimity and merit,) that it will do you much shows to the queen. For her majesty loveth good between the queen and you to allege them peace. Next, she loveth not charge. Thirdly, (as oft as you find occasion) for authors and that kind of dependence maketh a suspected patterns. For I do not know a readier mean to greatness. Therefore, “Quod instat agamus." make her majesty think you are in your right way. Let that be a sleeping honour a while, and cure Thirdly, when at any time your lordship upon the queen's mind on that point. Therefore, again, occasion happen in speeches to do her majesty whereas I heard your lordship designing to yourright, (for there is no such matter as flattery self the earl marshal's place, or place of master amongst you all,) I fear you handle it, “ magis in of the ordnance, I did not in my mind so well speciem adornatis verbis, quam ut sentire videaris." like of either; because of their affinity with a So that a man may read formality in your coun- martial greatness. But of the places now void, in tenance; whereas your lordship should do it my judgment and discretion, I would name you familiarly, “et oratione fida.” Fourthly, your to the place of lord privy seal. For, first, it is the lordship should never be without some particulars third person of the great officers of the crown. afoot, which you should seem to pursue with Next, it hath a kind of superintendence over the earnestness and affection; and then let them fall secretary. It hath also an affinity with the court upon taking knowledge of her majesty's opposition of wards, in regard of the fees from the liveries. and dislike. Of which the weightiest sort may And it is a fine honour, quiet place, and worth a be if your lordship offer to labour in the behalf of thousand pounds by year. And my lord admi. some that you favour for some of the places now ral's father had it, who was a martial man. And void; choosing such a subject as you think her it fits a favourite to carry her majesty's image in majesty is like to oppose unto: and if you will seal, who beareth it best expressed in heart. say, that this is “Conjunctum cum alienâ injurià;" But my chief reason is, that which I first alleged, I will not answer, “hæc non aliter constabunt;" to divert her majesty from this impression of a but I say, commendation from so good a mouth martial greatness. In concurrence whereof, if doth not hurt a man, though you prevail not. A your lordship shall not remit any thing of your less weighty sort of particulars may be the pre- former diligence at the Star Chamber; if you shall tence of some journeys which at her majesty's i continue such intelligences as are worth the request your lordship might relinquish ; as if you cherishing; if you shall pretend to be as bookish would pretend a journey to see your living and and contemplative as ever you were; all these estate towards Wales or the like; for as for great courses have both their advantages and uses in foreign journeys of employment and service, it themselves otherwise, and serve exceeding aptly standeth not with your gravity to play or stratagem to this purpose. Whereunto I add one expedient with them. And the lightest sort of particulars, more stronger than all the rest; and for mine which yet are not to be neglected, are in your own confident opinion, void of any prejudice or habits, apparel, wearings, gestures, and the like. danger of diminution of your greatness; and that

The impression of greatest prejudice next, is is, the bringing in of some martial man to be of that of a military dependence. Wherein I can- the council, dealing directly with her majesty in not sufficiently wonder at your lordship's course, it, as for her service and your better assistance; that you say, the wars are your occupation, and choosing, nevertheless, some person that may be go in that course ; whereas, if I might have ad- known not to come in against you by any former vised your lordship, you should have left that division.

I judge the fittest to be my Lord person at Plymouth; more than when in counsel Mountjoy, or my Lord Willoughby. And if

It is my

your lordship see deep:ier into it than I do, that

TO SIR ROBERT CECII, you would not have it done in effect, yet, in my Sir,-I forbear not to put in paper as much as opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence I thought to have spoken to your honour to-day, of it, and stay it nevertheless.

if I could have stayed, knowing that if your The third impression is of a popular reruta- honour should make other use of it than is due to tion; which, because it is a thing good in itself, good meaning, and then I am persuaded you will; being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that yet to persons of judgment, and that know me is, bonis artibus," and besides well governed, otherwise, it will rather appear (as it is) a preis one of the flowers of your greatness both pre- cise honesty, and this same, “ suum cuique trisent and to come; it would be handled tenderly. buere," than any hollowness to any. The only way is, to quench it verbis and not luck still to be akin to such things as I neither rebus; and therefore to take all occasions to the like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in queen, to speak against popularity and popular my course, but yet cannot avoid, without show of courses vehemently, and to tax it in all others: base timorousness, or else of unkind, or suspibut, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable cious strangeness. commonwealth courses as you do. And, there

Some hiatus in the copy. fore, I will not advise you to cure this by dealing And I am of one spirit still. I ever liked the in monopolies or any oppressions. Only if in Galenists that deal with good compositions, and parliament your lordship be forward for treasure not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine in respect to the wars, it becometh your person separations: and in music, I ever loved easy airs, well. And if her majesty object popularity to that go full all the parts together; and not those you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament strange points of accord and discord. This I will show that, and so feed her with expectation. write not, I assure your honour officiously, except

The fourth impression of the inequality be- it be according to Tully's offices, that is, honesily tween your estate of means and your greatness and morally. For though, I thank God, I acof respects, is not to be neglected; for, believe it, count upon the proceeding in the queen's service, my lord, that till her majesty find you careful of or not proceeding both ways, and therefore neither your estate, she will not only think you more mean to fawn or retire, yet I naturally desire good like to continue chargeable to her, but also have opinion with any person which for fortune or a conceit that you have higher imaginations. spirit is to be regarded, much more with a secreThe remedies are, first, to prosess it in all speeches tary of the queen's, and a cousin-german, and one to her; next, in such suits wherein both honour, with whom I have ever thought myself to have gist

, and profit may be taken to communicate some sympathy of nature, though accidents have freely with her majesty, by way of inducing her not suffered it to appear. Thus not doubting of to grant that it will be this benefit to you. Last- your honourable interpretation and usage of that ly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentle I have written, I commend you to the Divine premen are such as I am beholding to, nothing can servation. From Gray's Inn. make the queen or the world think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other, yet, "opinio veritate major.” But if, in IT MAY PLEASE Your gooD LORDSHIP, respect of the bonds, they may be entered into I pray God her majesty's weighing he not like for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss the weight of a balance, “gravia deorsum, levia yourself of them, this cannot be done but with sursum.” But I am as far from being altered in

devotion towards her as I am from distrust that For the fifth and last, which is of the advantage she will be altered in opinion towards me when of a favourite, as severed from the rest it cannot she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost hurt; so joined with them it maketh her majesty some opinion, some time, and some means; this more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her is my account: but then for opinion it is a blast own strength. The only remedy to this is, to that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, it give way to some other favourite, as in particular goeth and cometh not; but yet I have learned you shall find her majesty inclined, so as the that it may be redeemed. subject hath no ill, nor dangerous aspect towards

For means, I value that most; and the rather, yourself

; for, otherwise, whosoever shall tell me because I am purposed not to follow the practice that you may not have singular use of a favourite of the law: if her majesty command me in any at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not particular, I shall be ready to do her willing serthe queen's affection, nor your lordship’s condi- vice; and my reason is only because it drinketh tion. And so, I rest.

too much time, which I have dedicated to better October 4, 1596

purposes. But, even for that point of estate and




means, I partly lean to Thales' opinion, “ that a facta placebunt:" be it so, yet remember, thai philosopher may be rich if he will.” Thus your the signing of your name is nothing unless it be lordship seeth how I comfort myself; to the in- to some good patent or charter, whereby your crease whereof I would fain please myself to country may be endowed with good and benefit; believe that to be true which my lord treasurer which I speak both to move you to preserve your writeth, which is, that it is more than a philoso- person, for further merit and service of her pher morally can digest; but without any such majesty and your country, and likewise to refer high conceit, I esteem it like the pulling out of this action to the same end. And so, in most an aching tooth, which I remember when I was true and fervent prayers, I commend your lorda child, and had little philosophy, I was glad of ship, and your work in hand, to the preservation when it was done. For your lordship, I do think and conduct of the Divine Majesty; so much the myself more beholding to you than to any man; more watchful, as these actions do more maniand I say, I reckon myself as a common, (not po- festly in show, though alike in truth, depend pular but common,) and as much as is lawful to upon his Divine providence. be enclosed as a common, so much your lordship shall be sure to have. Your lordship's to obey your honourable

TO MY LORD OF CANTERBURY. commands more settled than ever.

IT MAY PLEASE your Grace,

I have considered the objections, perused the

statutes, and framed the alterations, which I TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.

send, still keeping myself within the brevity My sinGULAR GOOD Lord,

of a letter and form of a narration, not entering Your lordship's so honourable minding my poor into a form of argument or dicputation; for, in fortune the last year in the very entrance into my poor conceit, it is somewhat against the that great action, (which is a time of less leisure,) majesty of princes' actions to make too curious and in so liberal an allowance of your care as to and striving apologies; but rather to set them write three letters to stir me up friends in your forth plainly, and so as there may appear an absence; doth, after a sort, warrant me not to harmony and constancy in them, so that one part object to myself your present quantity of affairs, upholdeth another. And so I wish your grace whereby to silence myself from petition of the all prosperity. From my poor lodging, this, etc like favour. I brake with your lordship myself

Your grace's most dutiful at the Tower, and I take it my brother hath since

pupil and servant. renewed the same motion touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt " in genere economico." “In genere politico," certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dor- My sinGULAR GOOD LORD, mant, to the gentlewoman, and either of the The

message it pleased your lordship to send parents; wherein I do not doubt but as the me was to me delivered doubtfully; whether beams of your favour have often dissolved the your lordship said you would speak with me at coldness of my fortune, so in this argument your the Star Chamber or with Mr. Philip. If with lordship will do the like with your pen. My me, it is needless, for gratitude imposeth upon desire is also, that your lordship would vouchsafe me satisfaction; if with Mr. Philip, it will be too unto me, as out of your care, a general letter to late, because somewhat must, perchance, be done my lord keeper for his lordship’s holding me, that day. This doubt not solved, maketh me from you recommended, both in the course of write again; the rather, because I did liberally, my practice, and in the course of my employment but yet privately affirm, your lordship would in her majesty's service. Wherein, if your lord-write ; which, if I make not good, it may be a ship shall in any antithesis or relation, affirm that discouragement. Your lordship's letter, though liis lordship shall have no less hope of me than it have the subject of honour and justice, yet it of any other whom he may cherish, I hope your shall have the secrecy of a thing done upon affeclordship shall engage yourself for no impossibi- tion. I shall ever, in a firm duty, submit my lity. Lastly and chiefly, I know not whether I occasions, though great, to your lordship's shall attain to see your lordship before your noble respects, though small; and this is my resolu. journey; for ceremonies are things infinitely tion, that when your lordship doth for me, you inferior to my love and to my zeal; this let me, shall increase my obligation; when you refuse to with your allowance, say unto you by pen. It is do for me, you shall increase my merit. So, true that, in my well meaning advices, out of my leaving the matter wholly to your lordship's love to your lordship, and perhaps out of the state pleasure, I commend your lordship to the preserof mine own mind, I have sometimes persuaded vation of the Divine Majesty. From Gray's Inn. a course differing : “ ac tibi pro tutis insignia Your lordship's ever most humbly bounden.




TRANSLATION OF THE ANSWER OF THE LORD in heaven. It was at a time when the great deso-
BACON, THEN ATTORNEY-GENERAL, TO THE lation of the plague was in the city, and when

myself was ill of a dangerous and tedious sickSWORX OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL TO THE KING.

The first time that I found any degree of Your letters were very acceptable to me; and health, nothing came sooner to my mind than to I give myself joy, upon your congratulation. acknowledge your majesty's great favour by my The thing itself will (I suppose) conduce to my most humble thanks. And because I see your mahonour and satisfaction, if I remain in the mind I jesty taketh delight in my writings, and, to say now am in; by unwearied study, and perpetual truth, they are the best fruits I now yield, I presume watchfulness, and

affection, to promote the

to send your majesty a little discourse of mine, public good. Now, among the parts of the com- touching a war with Spain, which I writ about monwealth, there are none dearer to me than the

two years since, which the king, your brother, universities and learning. And this, my manner liked well. It is written without bitterness or of life hitherto, and my writings do both declare. invective, as kings' affairs ought to be carried : if

, therefore, any good fortune befalls me, you but, if I be not deceived, it hath edge enough. I

upon it as an accession to yourselves. have yet some spirits left, and remnant of expeNeither are you to believe, that my patronage is rience, which I consecrate to the king's service either quite removed from you, or so much as and your majesty's; for whom I pour out my daily diminished. For that part of an advocate which

prayers to God, that he would give your majesty concerneth the giving of counsel in causes

a fortune worthy your rare virtues ; which some remaineth entire. Also, (if any thing more good spirit tells me will be in the end. I do in weighty and urgent falleth out,) the very office all reverence kiss your majesty's hands, ever of pleading the king's leave being obtained) is

resting still allowed me. And whatsoever shall be

Your majesty's most humble found wanting in my juridical patronage will be

and devoted servant, compensated by my inore ample authority. My

FRANCIS ST. ALBAN. wishes are, that as I am translated from the business of private men and particular clients, to the government of the commonwealth; so the TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BAlatter part of

my age (if my life be continued to me) may, from the public cares, be translated to UPON HIS SENDING TO THEIR PUBLIC LIBRARY leisure and study.

HIS BOOK OF THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING. Also, this thought comes often into my mind, Francis, Baron of Verulam, and Viscount of St. amidst so many businesses and of such moment,

Albans, to the Indulgent Mother, the famous every year to lay aside some days to think on

University of Cambridge, health.
you: that so, having the greater insight into
your matters, I may the better consult your

I here repay you, according to my ability, the advantage.

debts of a son. I exhort you, also, to do the same Your most faithful and kind friend,

thing with myself: that is, to bend your whole FR. Bacon.

might towards the advancement of the sciences, July the 5th, 1616.

and to retain freedom of thought, together with
humility of mind; and not to suffer the talent

which the ancients have deposited with you, to
THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO lie dead in a napkin. Doubtless, the favour of
THE QUEEN OP BOHEMIA, IN ANSWER TO ONE the Divine light will be present and shine amongst

you, if, philosophy being submitted to religion, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,

you lawfully and dexterously use the keys of I have received your majesty's gracious letter sense; and if, all study of opposition being laid from Mr. Secretary Morton, who is now a saint aside, every one of you so dispute with another

as if he were arguing with himself. Fare ye well




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* A. D. 1625

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