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body of the gentleman of England) grow to be loving and obsequious, and to be weary of the humour of ruffling; all mutinous spirits grow to be a little poor and to draw in their horns, and not the less for your majesty's disauctorizing the man I speak of. Now, then, I reasonably doubt, that if there be but an opinion of his coming in with the strength of such an alliance, it will give a turn and relapse in men's minds into the former state of things hardly to be holpen, to the great weakening of your majesty's service.

Again, Your majesty may have perceived that, as far as it was fit for me in modesty to advise, I was ever for a Parliament, (which seemeth to me to be cardo rerum, or summa summarum, for the present occasions.) But this my advice was ever conditional, that your majesty should go to a Parliament with a council united and not distracted; and that your majesty will give me leave never to expect, if that man come in. Not for any difference of mine own, (for I am omnibus omnia for your majesty's service,) but because he is by nature unsociable, and by habit popular, and too old now to take a new ply. And men begin already to collect, yea, and to conclude, that he that raiseth such a smoke to get in, will set all on fire when he is in.

It may please your majesty, now I have said, I have done : and, as I think I have done a duty not unworthy the first year of your last high favour, I most humbly pray your majesty to pardon me, if in any thing I have erred; for, my errors shall always be supplied by obedience; and so I conclude with my prayers for the happy preservation of your majesty's person and estate.

Your majesty's most humble, bounden,

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I do think long to hear from your lordship, touching my last letter, wherein I gave you my opinion touching your brother's match. As I then showed my dislike of the matter, so the carriage of it here in the manner I dislike as much. If your lordship think it is humour or interest in me that leads me, God judge my sincerity. But, I must say, that in your many noble favours to wards me, they ever moved and flowed from yourself, and not from any of your friends whatsoever; and, therefore, in requital, give me leave that my counsels to you again be referred to your happiness, and not to the desire of any of your friends. I shall ever give you, as I give my master, safe counsel, and such as time will approve. I received, yesterday, from Mr. Attorney, the

queen's bill, which I send your lordship. The payment is not out of lands, but out of the customs, and so it can be but the rent. Your lord ship remembereth, it is but in a case which, I hope, shal. never be; that is, after his majesty's death, if she survive. God ever bless and direct


Your lordship's most faithful and
devoted friend and servant,

Gorhambury, this
25th of July, 1617.



I now only send my best wishes, to follow you at sea and land, with due thanks for your late great favours. God knows whether the length of your voyage will not exceed the size of my hour-glass; but whilst I live, my affection to do you service shall remain quick under the ashes of my fortune.


SIR,-In this solitude of friends, which is the base court of adversity, where nobody, almost, will be seen stirring, I have often remembered this Spanish saying, Amor sin fin, no tiene fin. This bids me make choice of your friend and mine for his noble succours; not now towards the aspiring, but only the respiring of my fortunes. I, who am a man of books, have observed, that he hath both the magnanimity of the old Romans, and the cordiality of the old English, and, withal, I believe he hath the wit of both: sure I am, that, for myself, I have found him in both my fortunes, to esteem me so much above my just value, and to love me so much above the possibility of deserving, or obliging on my part, as if he were a friend created and reserved for such a time as this. You know what I have to say to the great lord, and I conceive it cannot pass so fitly to him, by the mouth of any, as of this gentleman; and therefore do your best (which, I know, will be of power enough) to engage him, both in the substance and to the secrecy of it; for I can think of no man but yourself to be used by me in this, who are so private, so faithful, and so discreet a friend to us both; as, on the other side, I dare swear he is, and know myself to be as true to you as your own heart.



Yesterday, I know, was no day; now I hope I shall hear from your lordship, who are my anchor

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I did ever foresee, that this alliance would go near to leese me your lordship, that I hold so dear; and that was the only respect particular to myself that moved me to be as I was, till I heard from you. But I will rely upon your constancy and nature, and my own deserving, and the firm tie we have in respect of the king's service.


In the mean time I must a little complain to your lordship, that I do hear my lady your mother and your brother Sir John do speak of me with some bitterness and neglect. I must bear with the one as a lady, and the other as a lover, and with both for your lordship's sake, whom I will make judge of any thing they shall have against But I hope, though I be a true servant to your lordship, you will not have me to be a vassal to their passions, specially as long as they are governed by Sir Edward Coke and Secretary Winwood, the latter of which I take to be the worst; for Sir Edward Coke I think is more modest and discreet. Therefore your lordship shall do me right, and yet I shall take it for favour if you signify to them that you have received satisfaction from me, and would have them use me friendly, and in good manner. God keep us from these long journeys and absence, which make misunderstandings and give advantage to untruth, and God ever prosper and preserve your lordship. Your lordship's true and

devoted friend and servant,



Since my last to your lordship, I did first send York House, this 29th of October, 1617. for Mr. Attorney-General, and made him know, that since I heard from court, I was resolved to further the match and the conditions thereof, for your lordship's brother's advancement the best I could. I did send, also, to my Lady Hatton, and some other special friends, to let them know, I would in any thing declare myself for the match; which I did, to the end that, if they had any apprehension of my assistance, they might be discouraged in it. I sent also to Sir John Butler, ind after by letter to my lady, your mother, to tender my performance of any good office towards the match or the advancement from the mother. This was all I could think of for the present.

Gorhambury, this 23d of Aug. 1617.

See p. 22.


I send your lordship the certificate* touching
the enrolment of prentices. We can find no
ground for it by law. Myself shall ever be ready
to further things that your lordship commendeth;
but where the matter will not bear it, your lord-
ship I know will think not the worse, but the bet-
ter of me, if I signify the true state of things
to your lordship; resting ever

Your lordship's true friend
and devoted servant,




The liking which his majesty hath of our proceeding, concerning his household, telleth me that his majesty cannot but dislike the declining and tergiversation of the inferior officers, which by this time he understandeth.

There be but four kinds of retrenchments: 1. The union of tables; 2. The putting down of tables; 3. The abatement of dishes to tables; 4, The cutting off new diets and allowance lately raised; and yet perhaps such as are more necessary than some the old.

In my opinion the first is the best and most feasible. The lord chamberlain's table is the principal table of state. The lord steward's table is much frequented by Scottish gentlemen. Your lordship's table hath a great attendance; and the groom of the stole's table is much resorted to by the bedchamber. These would not be touched; but for the rest, (his majesty's case considered,) I think they may well be united into one.

These things are out of my element, but my care runneth where the king's state most laboureth: Sir Lyonel Cranfield is yet sick, for which I am very sorry; for methinks his majesty, upon these tossings over of his business from one to others

*The Certificate:

According to his majesty's command, signified by your lord ship's letters, we have advisedly considered of the petition touching the enrolment of apprentices' indentures, and heard the petitioners' counsel, and do find as followeth:

1. That the act of parliament 5° Eliz. doth not warrant the
erecting of an office to enrol such indentures in cities, towns
be, it must be by the officers there, who are assigned to per
corporate, or market towns. But if any such enrolment should
form sundry other things touching apprentices and servants.

2. That in country villages (for which the suit carries most
be there made warrantable by law.
colour) we cannot give the suitors hope, that any profit will

Thus we have (according to our duties) certified our opinions of this petition, submitting the same, nevertheless, to his

majesty's great wisdom; and rest, FR. BACON, C. S.

Oct. 25, 1617.

At your lordship's command,


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Yesterday at afternoon were read at the table his majesty's two letters, written with his own hand, the matter worthy the hand; for they were written ex arte imperandi, if I can judge; and I hope they and the like will disenchant us of the opinion, which yet sticks with us, that to-day will be as yesterday, and to-morrow as to-day, so as there will be (as he saith) acribus initiis, fine


I hold my opinion given in my former letter, that the uniting of some tables is the most passable way; but that is not all, for when that is done, the king may save greatly in that which remaineth. For if it be set down what tables shall be fixed, and what diet allowed to them, my steward (as ill a mesnager as I am,) or my Lord Mayor's steward, can go near to tell what charge will go near to maintain the proportion; then add to that some large allowance for waste (because the king shall not leese his prerogative to be deceived more than other men,) and yet no question there will be a great retrenchment. But against this last abatement will be fronted the payment of arrears. But I confess, I would be glad that I might see, or rather, that a parliament may see, and chiefly that the king (for his own quiet) may see, that upon such a sum paid such an annual retrenchment will follow for things will never be done in act, except they be first done in conceit.

York House, Nov. 22, 1617.
VOL. III.-11

I know these things do not pertain to me; for my part is to acquit the king's office towards God, by administration of justice, and to oblige the hearts of his people to him by the same, and to maintain his prerogative. But yet because it is in hoc, that the king's case laboureth, I cannot but yield my care and my strength too in counsel, such as it is, which cannot be so much as it was between our Lady-day, and Michaelmas last. But whatsoever it is, it is wholly his majesty's without any deflexion.

As soon as I find any possibility of health in Sir Lyonel Cranfield to execute a sub-commission, I will by conference with him frame a draught of a letter from his majesty, for which there is the fairest occasion in the world; and the king hath prepared it as well as possible. God ever preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's true friend

and devoted servant,



I send your lordship a draught of a letter touching the sub-commission,* written in wide lines, because it may be the better amended by his majesty. I think it is so penned as none can except to it, no, nor imagine any thing of it. For the household-business there was given a fortnight's day for the pensions, the course which I first propounded of abating of a third throughout, and some wholly, seemeth well entered into. These be no ill beginnings. But this course of the sub-commission thrids all the king's business. God ever preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,

York House, 27th Nov. 1617.

Sir Lyonel Cranfield is now reasonably well recovered.

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In this first and greatest branch of our charge concerning our house we do find what difficulties are made, and what time is lost, in disputing and of devising upon the manner of

follow in the rest upon like reason. For the inferior officers

doing it, whereof the matter must be, and is so fully resolved. Neither can we but see in this, as in a glass, the like event to in every kind, who are best able for skill to propound the retrenchments, will, out of interest or fearfulness, make dainty to do service; and that which is done with an ill-will will never be well done. Again, to make it the act of the whole table, for the particular propositions and reckonings, will be too tedious for you, and will draw the business itself into length; and to make any particular committees of yourselves were to impose that upon a few which requireth to be carried indifferently as the act of you all. For since the great officers themselves think it too heavy for them, as our state now is,

to deal in it, without bringing it to the table, with much more reason may any particular persons of you be loath to meddle

House, and auditors out of which we will make choice of

in it, but at the board. In all which respects we have thought fit, (neither do we see any other way,) that you send unto us the names of the officers of our Exchequer and our Custom some few, best qualified to be subcommittees, for the better ease and the speeding of the business by their continual incline to be to attend the principal officers in their several travails and meetings: whose part and employment we charges, and join themselves to some of the inferior officers, and so take upon them the mechanic and laborious part of every business, thereby to facilitate and prepare it for your consultations, according to the directions and instructions they shall receive from you from to time.

the grievances put down in parliament; which if ted, being principal sinews of his majesty's an

it be, I may not in my duty and love to you advise you to deal in it; if it be not, I will mould it in the best manner and help it forward. The stay is upon the search of the clerk of the parlíament, who is out of town; but we have already found, that the last grievance in 7mo. is not the same with this suit; but we doubt yet of another in 3°.

thority. Therefore the course will be (as I am
advised) that for this heinous misprison (that the
party without all colour or shadow of cause should
threaten the life of his judge, and of the highest
judge of the kingdom next his majesty) he be
first examined, and if he confess it, then an ore
tenus; if he confess it not, then an information in the
Star Chamber, and he to remain where he is till
the hearing. But I do purposely forbear yet to
have him examined till the decree or agreement
between him and my Lord Aubigny (which is
now ready) be perfected, lest it should seem an
oppression by the terror of the one to beat him
down in the other. Thus I ever rest

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,
FR. BACON, Canc.

For the business of Mr. Leviston, for your lordship's sake (who I perceive keeps your noble course with me, in acquainting me with these things) I shall apply myself unto you, though in my nature I do desire that those that serve in the court where I sit, though they be not in places of my gift, and so concerns not me nor my place in profit; yet I wish, I say, I might leave them in as good case as I find them. And this suit concerneth the main profit of the six clerks, who though they be of the master of the rolls his gift, yet they serve in my court. But my greatest doubt is, that the grant cannot be good in law; and that it is not like those other precedents, whereof I have received a note. For the difference is, where things have been written by all the clerks indifferently and loosely, (in which case the king may draw them into an office,) and where they have appertained to one especial office; in which case the king can no more take the profits of a man's office than he can the profits of his land. Therefore, I think your lordship may do well to write to Mr. Solicitor and Serjeant Finch, or some other lawyers that you trust, or such as Mr. Leviston trusteth, being persons of account, to inform you of the point in law before you proceed any further: for without that all is in vain.


For the business of Hawkyns, touching the register for the commission of bankrupts, I am not yet satisfied, likewise for the law, nor for the conveniency, but I rather incline to think it may pass; and I have set it in a course by which I may be thoroughly informed.

For Sir Rowland Egerton's cause, and his lady's, the parties have submitted themselves unto me, and are content to do it by bond, and therefore, I will undoubtedly make an end of it according to justice and conscience.

For Sir Gilbert Houghton's business I am in very good hope to effect your lordship's desire for his good.

For Moore's business, concerning the printing of books, after hearing all parties, I have sealed his patent; but for his former patent of salt I dare not do it without acquainting the council therewith, which I am ready to do, if he require that course to be taken.

If his majesty at any time ask, touching the Lord Clifton's business, I pray your lordship represent to his majesty thus much, that whatsoever hath passed I thank God I neither fear him nor hate him; but I am wonderful careful of the seat of justice, that they may still be well muni

York House, Jan. 25th, 1617.

I pray your lordship to pardon me, if, in respect of a little watering in one of mine eyes, I have written this letter, being long and private busi; ness, in my secretary's hand.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCellent Majesty, Finding as well by your majesty's despatches and directions to your council, as now by speech with Mr. Secretary Laque, that your majesty is content to be troubled with business of sundry natures, I thought good, according to the duty of my place and the necessity of the occasion, to put your majesty in mind, that on this day sennight, being Friday in the morning, I am, according to custom, to give a charge and admonition to the judges and justices of peace now before the circuits, wherein I am humbly to crave your majesty's pleasure and directions.

I have for your majesty's better ease set down the heads, which by the prescript of your book, and out of the consideration of the present times, I have thought fittest to be remembered. I have also sent your majesty the last account of the judges' circuits, not to trouble you with the reading of them all; but to the end, that if upon my memorial, or otherwise out of your majesty's own memory which is above memorials, you should have occasion to resort to those accounts, the papers may be by you.

The point of greatest weight in my opinion is the carrying of a balanced hand at this time in the matter of recusants, in regard of the treaty with Spain. For it were good in respect of your people, that there were no note made, that the string is relaxed, and in respect of the treaty, that it is not strained: and therefore the proceeding in those causes be rather diligent than severe.

I am wonderful glad to hear that this extremity of weather, which I think the Muscovite hath brought with him, hath not touched your majesty.

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This Friday morning,

Thirdly, The rate of the moneys paid by the

the 6th of February, 1617.

Your majesty will be pleased your answer be gentlemen, amounteth to but thirteen year's purwith me on Thursday at noon, or soon after it. chase, which is a plain gift of a good propɔ tion of value.


Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer hath signified to me, this day, that yesterday his majesty called him to his coach and said to him, that one that had used ill speech of me should be called before me and make his submission to me, and, thereupon be called before the council and receive a sharp reprehension, and so be enlarged. And Mr. Chancellor could not tell me who the person was, but after, by some letter he received from my Lord Clifton, and speech with a man of his, he perceived it was he.

I pray your lordship, in humbleness, to let his majesty know that I little fear the Lord Clifton, but I much fear the example, that it will animate ruffians and rodomonti, extremely, against the seats of justice, (which are his majesty's own seats) yea, and against all authority and greatness, if this pass without public censure and example, it having gone already so far as that the person of a baron hath been committed to the Tower. The punishment it may please his majesty to remit, and I shall not formally but heartily intercede for him, but an example (setting myself aside) I wish for terror of persons that may be more dangerous than he, towards the least judge of the


March 17, 1617.

Therefore, it may please his majesty to speak of it with myself and my lords when he cometh next; and in the mean time I will command from his majesty, the master of the rolls and Mr. Attorney, who were appointed by the table to examine him, to stay. God ever prosper you. Your lordship's true friend

and devoted servant,
FR. BACON, Canc.





pray your lordship to signify to his majesty that I thought it my duty to stay at the seal, book of Sir Francis Steward's and Sir James Averlony, &c., of £200 land in charge in fee simple: my reasons. First, It is a perpetuity, and so much rent in diminution of revenue certain.

Secondly, The warrant (as is acknowledged) came only from my Lord of Suffolk, and not from Mr. Chancellor, and yet my lord was wont to boast, that since he was treasurer, all commissions and contracts for sale of the king's land were broken off and ceased.


If his majesty, now informed, iterate his mandate, it is done, and I excuse; but I could wish his majesty would refer it to the commissioners of the treasury how the gentlemen may be otherwise satisfied.

commission of the wards in Ireland, which, this I received, yesternight, a brave account of the one year, is advanced from two hundred pounds per annum to four thousand pounds, which is twenty fold multiplied. This I write for two reasons. First, because I glory in it, because it was my work wholly: next, because his majesty may take occasion by this to look better to the improvement of his wards in England in due time. God ever preserve and prosper you. Your Lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

York House,

July 27, 1618.



I am very glad to hear of the honour his majesty intendeth to my noble lady, your lordship's mother. This, amongst many other things, showeth, in your lordship, good nature, which is the root of all virtues, next religion. Besides, it doth sort well in states, when place and power do meet, and stand not too far at distance.

For the passing of it by direction without bill signed, it cannot be in law. So is Mr. Attorney's opinion, and so is mine; and, therefore, there is presently a bill sent with an endorsement of passing it by immediate warrant, and this antedate.

For the antedate, I must present his majesty with my caution, and with my obedience.

For the statute tieth me from antedates; and, indeed, the mischief is infinite: for, by that means the king may grant any land, &c., and take it away a month hence, and grant it another by an antedate. And, surely, were it land or the like, I would not say absit, or your majesty cannot do it for the world; or your majesty is sworn, and I am sworn; or such brave phrases: but, surely, (I say) would in humbleness represent it to his majesty But the case of honour differeth; for, therein his majesty's prerogative and declaration is abso lute, and he may make him that is last to be first. And, therefore, upon his majesty's signification

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