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of his pleasure upon the endorsement of the bill | hath been yielded communibus annis, by a medium signed, I take it I may lawfully do it.

of seven years. If the king be pleased to grant I am here rejoicing with my neighbours, the me this, it will a little warm the honour he hath townsmen of St. Albans, for this happy day, the given me; and I shall have a new occasion to be 5th of August, 1618.

as I ever have been, and shall be Your lordship's most obliged

Your lordship's obliged friend friend and faithful servant,

and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, Canc.

FR. VERULAM, Canc. Gorhambury.

York House,
October 9th, 1618.



I thank your lordship for your last loving letter. MY VERY GOOD LORD, I now write to give the king an account of the This morning Mr. Attorney came to me and patent I have stayed at the seal. It is of licence desired of me many writs of ne exeat regnum to give in mortmain eight hundred pounds land, against most of the Dutch merchants, and withal though it be in tenure in chief to Allen, that was let me understand that there was a discovery of the player, for an hospital.

an infinite transportation of gold and silver out I like well that Allen playeth the last act of his of this realm, by the said Dutch merchants, life so well; but if his majesty give way thus to amounting to millions; and that Sir John Britten amortize his tenures, his courts of wards will had made a book thereof, and presented the same decay, which I had well hoped should improve. to his majesty; and further that his majesty had

But that which moved me chiefly is, that his directed him to prosecute the same; and had also majesty now lately did absolutely deny Sir Henry given to Sir Thomas Vavisor the forfeiture of Savile for two hundred pounds, and Sir Edwin such ten of them as he should choose. Sandys for one hundred pounds, to the perpetuat Hereupon, I thought it my duty, as in a matter ing of two lectures, the one in Oxford, the other in of great weight, to signify to his majesty, by your Cambridge, foundations of singular honour to his lordship, what I conceive. majesty, (the best learned of kings,) and of which The discovery I think very happy: for, if it be there is great want; whereas, hospitals abound, true, it will be a great benefit to his majesty; it and beggars abound never a whit the less. will also content his people much, and it will

If his majesty do like to pass the book at all; demonstrate also that Scotland is not the leech yet if he would be pleased to abridge the eight (as some discoursers say,) but the Netherlanders hundred pounds to five hundred pounds, and then that suck the realm of treasure ; so that the thing give way to the other two books for the Univer- is very good. sity, it were a princely work. And I would make But, two things I must represent to his maan humble suit to the king, and desire your lord- jesty: the first, that if I stay merchants from ship to join in it, that it might be so.

their trading by this writ, I must do it either ex preserve and prosper you.

officin, or by special warrant from his majesty. Your lordship’s most obliged

If ex officio, then I must have more than a bare friend and faithful servant,

surmise to grant the writ upon, so as I must be FR. VERULAM, Canc. acquainted with the grounds, or at least appear. York House, this 18th of August, 1618.

ance of proofs. If by special warrant, then I

desire to receive the same. The other is that I I have written to my Lord Chamberlain, being humbly beseech his majesty that these royal Chancellor of Oxford, to help in the business. boughs of forfeiture may not be vintaged, or

cropped by private suitors, (considering his majesty's state as it is,) but that Sir Thomas Viva.

sor or Sir John Brittain may have a bountiful and TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.

gracious reward of their discovery, but not the My dERY GOOD LORD,

prime, or without stint. Looking for matter of service, I have found out In sum, I would wish his majesty to refer the a suit for myself, and it is proper for me more whole business and carriage of the same for his than all men, because it is within the accompt of honour and profit to the commissioners of treathe hanaper. But I have made a law to myself, sure, or because it is a legal forfeiture to myself, Mr. that I will never beg any thing, which shall not Chancellor, Sir Edward Coke, and my Lord Chief bring a gain to the king; therefore, my suit is to Justice of England, and by us his majesty shall farm the profits of the alienations, yielding a be assured to know the best cause for his justice, thousand pounds a year more to the king than honour, and profit, and that he may dispose what

God ever



bounty he will. God ever preserve and prosper of the pursuivants in a way, which I think will

be best by a commission of Oyer and Terminer; Your lordship's most obliged

for the Star Chamber (without confession) is long friend and faithful servant, seas. I should advise that this point of the

Fr. Verulam, Canc. pursuivants were not single, but that it be coupled York House,

in the commission with the offences of keepers October 19, 1618.

of prisons hereabouts, it hath a great affinity; for pursuivants are but ambulatory keepers, and it

works upon the same party (of the Papists.) And TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. it is that wherein many of his majesty's and the MY VERY GOOD LORD,

council's severe charges have been hitherto unThis long book which I send for his majesty's fruitful: and it doth a great deal of mischief. I

But of this it signature, was upon a conference and consult have some other reasons for it. yesternight

, (at which time I was assisted by the will be fittest to advertise more particularly what two chief justices, and attended by the surveyor, with the chief justice. I am wonderful glad to

I have resolved of on advice, upon conference attorney, and receiver of the court of wards, Fleetwood,) framed and allowed.

hear of the king's good health.

God preserve It is long, because we all thought fit not to

his majesty and your lordship. I ever rest piece new instructions with old instructions, but

Your lordship’s most obliged

friend and faithful servant, to reduce both old and new into one body of instructions. I do not see that of the articles, which

Fr. VERULAM, Canc.

Gorhambury, this last are many, any could have been spared. They are of July, 1619. plain, but they have a good property, that they will take fast hold. I may not trouble his majesty with choosing some of them in particular, when all are good, only I think fit to let his majesty TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. know of one, which is, that according to his directions, the oath of making no private unlaw

MY VERY GOOD LORD, ful profit is now as well translated to the master

I think it my duty to let his majesty know and officers that may take, as to the parties and what I find in this cause of the ore tenus: for as suitors that may give.

his majesty hath good experience, that when his It little becometh me to possess his majesty

business comes upon

stage, I

carry it with that this will be to his majesty's benefit ten strength and resolution, so in the proceedings, I thousands yearly, or fifteen thousands, or twenty

love to be wary and considerate. thousands; for those rattles are fitter for mounte

I wrote to your lordship by my last, that J banks of service than grave counsellors.

But hoped by the care I had taken, the business would my advices (as far as I am able to discern) tend go well, but without that care, I was sure it or extend but to thus much: this is his majesty's would not go well: this I meant, because I had surest and easiest may for his most good.

had conference with the two chief justices, Sir Sir Miles Fleetwood, who both now and hereto- Edward Coke being present, and handled the fore

, hath done very good service in this, meriteth matter so, that not without much ado, I left to be particularly from your lordship encouraged :

both the chief justices firm to the cause and which I beseech your lordship not to forget. God satisfied.

But calling to mind that in the main business, Your lordship's most faithful

notwithstanding I and the chief justices went one bounden friend and servant,

way, yet the day was not good, (and I should be

loath to see more of such days,) I am not withFR. VERULAM, Canc.

out some apprehension; for though we have Sir December, 1618.

Edward Coke earnest and forward, insomuch as he advised the ore tenus, before I knew it at

Wansted, and now bound the Dutchmen over to

the Star Chamber, before I was made privy; TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.

unto both which proceedings, I did nevertheless My very good LORD,

give approbation: yet if there should be either I send his majesty a volume of my Lord of the major part of the votes the other way, or any Bangor’s and my Lord Sheffield, whereof I spake main distraction, though we bear it through, Í when I left his majesty at Theobald's. His ma- should think it a matter full of inconvenience. jesty may be pleased at his own good time and but that which gives me most to think, is the pleasure to cast his eye upon it. I purpose at my carriage of Mr. Attorney, which sorteth neithes coming to London to confer with the chief justice with the business nor with himself; for as I hear as his majesty appointed; and to put the business from divers, and partly perceive, he is fallen frons


ever prosper you.

This 4th of

ever rest

earnest to be cool and faint; which weakness, if we proceed, I should send the letter to his mait should make the like alteration at the bar, it jesty, because I would not straiten bis majesty in might overthrow the cause; all the remedy which any thing. is in my power, is by the advice of the judges to The evidence went well, (I will not say I draw some other of the learned counsel to his sometimes helped it as far as was fit for a judge,) help, which he, I know, is unwilling with, but and at the arising of the court, I moved their that is all one.

lordships openly, whether they would not conThis I thought it necessary to write, lest the tinue this cause from day to day till it were king should think me asleep, and because I know ended; which they thought not fit, in regard of that his majesty's judgment is far better than the general justice, which would be delayed in mine. But I, for my part, mean to go on roundly; all courts: yet afterwards within I prevailed so and so I ever rest

far, as we have appointed to sit Wednesday, Your lordship’s most obliged friend

Thursday, and Friday, and to sit by eight of the and faithful servant, clock, and so to despatch it before the king come,

FR. VERULAM, Canc. if we can. God preserve and prosper you. I Cctober 9th, 1619.

Your lordship's most obliged friend If the king, in his great wisdom, should any

and faithful servant, ways incline to have the ore tenus put off, then

FR. VERULAM, Canc. the way were to command that the matter of the This 22 of October, ore tenus should be given in evidence, by way of Friday, at 4 of the aggravation, in the main cause.

And it is true,

o'clock, 1619. that if this precursory matter goeth well, it giveth great entrance into the main cause; if ill, contrariwise, it will do hurt and disadvantage to TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. the main.


I do not love to interlope by writing in the midst of business; but because his majesty

commanded me to acquaint him with any occurTO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.

rence which might cross the way, I have thought MY VERY GOOD LORD,

fit to let his majesty know what hath passed These things which I write now and hereto- this day. fore, in this cause, I do not write so as any can This day, (which was the day set down,) the take knowledge that I write; but I despatch great cause of the Dutchmen was entered into. things ex officio here, and yet think it fit, inward- The pleading being opened, and the case stated ly, to advertise the king what doth occur. And by the counsel, the counsel of the defendants I do assure your lordship, that if I did serve any made a motion to have certain examinations king whom I did not thin far away wiser than taken, concerning the old defendants suppresmyself, I would not write in the midst of busi- sed, because they were taken since the last ness, but go on of myself.

hearing. This morning, notwithstanding my speech I set the business in a good way, and showed yesterday with the duke, he delivered this letter they were but supplemental, and that at the last enclosed, and I having cleared the room of all hearing, there were some things extrajudicial save the court and learned counsel, (whom alleged, ad infimandum conscientiam judicis

, and I required to stay,) the letter was read a therefore there was more reason these should be little before our hour of sitting. When it used, ad informandum conscientiam judicis, and was read, Mr. Attorney began to move that that there was order for it. The order was my lord should not acknowledge his offences read, and approved by both the court and the as he conceived he had committed them, but defendant's own counsel; but it was alleged, as they were charged; and some of the lords that the order was not entered time enough, speaking to that point, I thought fit to interrupt, whereby the defendants might likewise examine, and divert that kind of question; and said, wherein certainly there was some slip or forgetbefore we considered of the extent of my lord's fulness in Mr. Attorney, or Britten, that followed submission, we were first to consider of the it, which I wish had been otherwise, yet it wer: extent of our own duty and power; for that I fair out of the court. conceived it was neither fit for us to stay pro- But after dinner my lords were troubled with ceeding, nor to move his majesty in that, which it, and after much dispute, we have agreed to was before us in course of justice; unto which, confer silently, and sine strepitu to-morrow,

and (being once propounded by me,) all the lords set all straight, calling the judges and the learned and the rest, unà voce assented. I would not so' counsel, with whom I have spoken this evening,

as ask the question whether, though think to good purpose. For in good faith I am fain to be omnibus omnio, as St. Paul saith, to set for business of your majesty's attorney-general, both ward his majesty's service.


for the satisfying your own honour, as also for I discern a kind of inclination to take hold of calling in the late exorbitant charter of the city ; all accidents to put off the cause, whereunto which are the two ends, as we conceive, that your neither I shall give way, nor I hope his majesty; majesty proposed unto yourself. to-morrow, if cause be, I shall write more, buti To effect both which, we humbly presuine to I hope all shall be well. I ever rest

present thus much unto your majesty as our opiYour lordship’s most obliged

nion. First, That an information be put into the friend and faithful servant, Star Chamber, as we formerly advised, against

FR. VERULAM, Canc. your attorney as delinquent, against the mayor, Friday night, 19th November, 1619.

&c., as interested, and against the recorder also mixedly with some touch of charge.

That the submission by letter offered by Mr.

Attorney is no way satisfactory for your majesty's TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.

honour, but is to be of record by way of answer, MY VERY GOOD Lord,

and deduced to more particulars. I have conferred with Sir Lyonel Cranfield, That any submission or surrender of the patents according to his majesty's special commandment, by the city should be also of record in their antouching two points of value, for the advance swer; and no other can be received with your ment (the one present, the other speedy) of his majesty's honour, but by answer in court: the majesty's revenue.

same to come merely of themselves, without any The first is of the corans, to restore the imposi- motion on your majesty's behalf, directly or intion of five shillings and sixpence, laid in the late directly; which being done in this form, it will queen's time, and drawn down unduly, to serve be afterwards in your majesty's choice and pleaprivate turns, to three shillings and four pence, sure to use mercy, and to suspend any farther which will amount to above three thousand pounds proceedings against your attorney. Fearly increase.

That it is of necessity, as well for the putting The other is of the tobacco, for which there is in of this information, as for your majesty's other offered two thousand pounds increase yearly, to urgent and public services in that and other begin at Michaelmas next, as it now is, and three courts, to have a sequestration presently of your thousand pounds increase if the plantations of attorney, and a provisional commission to some tobacco here within land be restrained.

other, during your majesty's pleasure, to execute I approve, in mine own judgment, both propo- that charge: for both which instruments legai sitions, with these cautions : That for the first, shall be provided as soon as your majesty's plea the farmers of the corans do, by instrument under sure is known. To which we humbly and dutitheir seal, relinquish to the king all their claim fully submit our advice and opinion, beseeching thereto, by any general words of their patent. God to bless your majesty's sacred person with And for the second, that the bargain be concluded continuance and increase of much health and hapand made before the proclamation go forth; where-piness. Wherewith, humbly kissing your royal in, perhaps, there will occur some doubt in law, hands, we rest because it restraineth the subject in the employ

Your majesty's most humble and ment of his freehold at his liberty. But being so

faithful subjects and servants, many ways pro bono publico, I think it good

FR. VERULAM, Canc. enough.

ROBERT NAUNTON, His majesty may, therefore, be pleased to write

Jul. CÆSAR, his letter to the commissioners of the treasury,

T. ARUNDEL, signifying his majesty's pleasure directly in both

Geo. CALVERT, points, to have them done, and leaving to us the

Epw. COKE consideration de modo. God ever prosper you. At your majesty's palace at I rest your lordship’s most obliged friend

Whitehall, June 16, 1620. and faithful servant,

Fr. VERULAM, Canc.
November 22, 1619.


I have lately certified his majesty on the behalf

of Sir George Chaworth, by Secretary Calvert, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, touching the place of a remembrancer in the

According to your commandment, we met to- Chancery for setting down of causes. And be gether yesterday at Whitehall, and there consulted cause the gentleman telleth me the king thought what course were fittest to be taken now in this my certificate a little doubtful, he desired me to


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wii'e to your lordship, touching my approbation or added, though it may be ourselves shall have
more plainly. It is true that I conceive it to be second thoughts, this being but the result of our
a good business, and will be for the service of the first meeting.
court and ease of the subject; I will look it shall The state of his majesty's treasure still maketh
be accompanied with good cautions.

me sad; and I am sorry I was not at Theobald's We ruffle over business here in council apace, to report it, or that it was not done by my fellow: and I think to reasonable good purpose. By my it is most necessarily we do it faithfully and freely. next I will write of some fit particulars. I ever For to flatter in this were to betray his majesty rest

with a kiss. I humbly pray his majesty to think Your most obliged friend and faithful servant, of my former counsel, and this I will promise, that

Fr. Verulam, Canc. whomsoever his majesty shall make treasurer, if 21 June, 1620.

his majesty shall direct him to have relation to
my advice, I will continue the same care and
advice I do now, and much more cheerfully when

I shall perceive that my propositions shall not be

literæ scriptæ in glacie. MY VERY GOOD LORD,

Meanwhile, to keep the commission in doing Yesterday I called unto us the two chief justices of somewhat worth the doing, it may please his and Serjeant Crew about the Parliament business. majesty to take knowledge that, upon our report, To call more judges I thought not good, it would we had agreed to make remonstrance to him, that be little to assistance, much to secrecy : the dis- we thought Ireland might (if his majesty leave it tribution of the business we made was into four to our care) be brought by divers good expedients parts.

to bear their own charge; and, therefore, his First, The perusing of the former grievance, majesty may be pleased, by his commandment, and of things of like nature which have come in to set us in hand with it out of hand. God ever since.

prosper you. Secondly, The consideration of a proclamation

Your lordship's most obliged with the clauses thereof, especially touching elec

friend and faithful servant, tions, which clauses, nevertheless, we are of opi

Fr. Verulam, Canc. nion, should be rather monitory than exclusive. October 7, 1620.

Thirdly, The inclusive: that is to say, what persons were fit to be of the House, tending to make a sufficient and well composed House of the

TO SIR HENRY WOTTON. ablest men of the kingdom, fit to be advised with circa ardua regni, as the style of the writs goeth, MY VERY good Cousin, according to the pure and true institution of a The letter which I received from your lordship Parliament; and of the means to place such per- upon your going to sea was more than a compensons without novelty or much observation. For sation for any former omission; and I shall be this purpose we made some lists of names of the very glad to entertain a correspondence with you prime counsellors, and principal statesmen or in both kinds which you write of: for the latter, courtiers, of the gravest or wisest lawyers, of I am now ready for you, having sent you some the most respected and best tempered knights ore of that mine. I thank you for your favours and gentlemen of the county. And here obiter to Mr. Meautys, and I pray continue the same. we did not forget to consider who were the So, wishing you out of your honourable exile, boutefeus of the last session, how many of them and placed in a better orb, I rest are dead, how many reduced, and how many

Your lordship’s affectionate kinsman remain, and what was fit to be done concerning

and assured friend, them.

FR. VERULAM, Canc. Fourthly, The having ready of some common-York House, October 20, 1620. wealth bills that may add respect and acknowledgment of the king's care; not wooing bills to make the king and his graces cheap, but good TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. matter to set them on work, that an empty stomach My very good Lord, do not feed upon humour. of these four points, that which concerneth for the Parliament, which I thought fit to offer

I send his majesty a form of a proclamation* persons is not so fit to be communicated with the council table, but to be kept within fewer hands.

* Draught of a Proclamation for a Parliament:The other three may when they are ripe.

As in our princely judgment, we hold nothing more worthy Meanwhile I thought good to give his majesty of a Christian monarch than the conservation of peace at an account what is done, and in doing, humbly other calamities of war are avoided ; trade is kept open ; laws craving his direction if any thing be to be altered and justice retain their due vigour and play; arts and sciences

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