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that good correspondence towards my dear ally, weaken by division and disunion of the heads; and your good friend, now abroad, as no incon- the other, by recovering and winning the people venience may grow that way. Thus have I play-by justice, which of all other causes is the best. ⚫ed the ignorant statesman, which I do to nobody Now for the Athenian question, you discourse but your lordship, except I do it to the queen well, “Quid igitur agendum est?" I will shoot sometimes, when she trains me on. But your my fool's bolt, since you will have it so. The lordship will accept my duty and good meaning, Earl of Ormond to be encouraged and comforted and secure me touching the privateness above all things, the garrisons to be instantly prowrite. vided for; for opportunity makes a thief: and if he should mean never so well now, yet such an advantage as the breaking of her majesty's garrisons, might tempt a true man. And because he may as well waver upon his own inconstancy, as upon occasion, and want of variableness is never restrained but with fear, I hold it necessary to be menaced with a strong war; not by words, but by musters and preparations of forces here, in case the accord proceed not; but none to be sent over, lest it disturb the treaty, and make him look to be overrun as soon as he hath laid down arms. And, but that your lordship is too easy to pass, in such cases, from dissimulation to verity, I think, if your lordship lent your reputation in this case, it is to pretend, that if not a defensive war, as in times past, but a full reconquest of those parts of the country be resolved on, you would accept the charge, I think it would help to settle him, and win you a great deal of honour gratis. And that which most properly concerneth this action, if it prove a peace, I think her majesty shall do well to cure the root of the disease, and to profess by a commission of peaceable men chiefly of respect and countenance, the reformation of abuses, extortions and injustices there, and to plant a stronger and surer government than heretofore, for the ease and protection of the subject; for the removing of the sword, or government in arms, from the Earl of Ormond, or the sending of a deputy, which will eclipse it, if peace follow, I think unseasonable. Lastly, I hold still my opinion, both for your better information, and your fuller declaration of your care, and evermore meriting service, that your lordship have a set conference with the persons I named in my former writing. I rest, At your lordship's service, FR. BACON.

Your lordship's to be commanded,



THOSE advertisements which your lordship imparted to me, and the like, I hold to be no more certain to make judgment upon than a patient's water to a physician: therefore for me upon one water to make a judgment, were indeed like a foolish bold mountebank, or Dr. Birket, yet, for willing duty's sake, I will set down to your lordship what opinion sprung in my mind upon that read. The letter from the council there, leaning to distrust, I do not much rely upon, for three causes. First, because it is always both the grace and the safety from blame of such a council to err in caution whereunto add, that it may be they, or some of them, are not without envy towards the person who is used in treating the accord. Next, because the time of this treaty hath no show of dissimulation, for that Tyrone is now in no streights, but like a gamester that will give over because he is a winner, not because he hath no more money in his purse.

Lastly, I do not see but those articles whereon they ground their suspicion, may as well proceed out of fear as out of falsehood, for the retaining of the dependence of the protracting the admission of a sheriff, the refusing to give his son for hostage, the holding from present repair to Dublin, the refusing to go presently to accord, without including O'Donnell, and others his associates, may very well come of a guilty reservation, in case he should receive hard measure, and not out of treachery; so as if the great person be faithful, and that you have not here some present intelligence of present succours from Spain, for the expectation whereof Tyrone would win time, I see no deep cause of distrusting the cause if it be good. And for the question, her najesty seemeth to me a winner three ways: first, her purse shall have rest: next, it will divert the foreign designs unon that place: thirdly, though her majesty is ike for a time to govern precario in the north, and be not in true command in better state there than before, yet, besides the two respects of ease of charge, and advantage of opinion abroad, before mentioned, she shall have a time to use her princely policy in two points: in the one, to




Your note of my silence in your occasions hath made me set down these few wandering lines, as one that would say somewhat, and can say nothing touching your lordship's intended charge for Ireland; which my endeavour I know your lordship will accept graciously and well, whether your lordship take it by the handle of the occasion ministered from yourself, or of the affection from which it proceedeth. Your lordship is designed

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to a service of great merit and great peril; and
as the greatness of the peril must needs include
no small consequence of peril, if it be not tem-
perately governed; so all immoderate success
extinguisheth merit, and stirreth up distaste and
envy, the assured forerunner of whole changes of
peril. But I am at the last point first, some good
spirit leading my pen to presage your lordship's
success; wherein it is true, I am not without my
oracle and divinations, none of them superstitious,
and yet not all natural: for, first, looking into the
course of God's providence in things now depend-
ing, and calling into consideration how great
things God hath done by her majesty, and for her
collect he hath disposed of this great dissection
in Ireland, whereby to give an urgent occasion to
the reduction of that whole kingdom, as upon the
rebellion of Desmond there ensued the reduction
of that province. Next, your lordship goeth
against three of the unluckiest vices of all other,
disloyalty, ingratitude, and insolence; which
three offences in all examples have seldom their
doom adjourned to the world to come. Lastly, he
that shall have had the honour to know your lord-be a conquest, or a reconquest upon a rebellion or

defaults of so many former governors, and the clearing the glory of so many happy years' reign, only in this part excepted. Nay, farther, how far forth the peril of that state is interlaced with the peril of England; and, therefore, how great the honour is to keep and defend the approaches of this kingdom, I hear many discourse; and indeed there is a great difference, whether the tortoise gather herself into her shell hurt or unhurt; and if any man be of opinion, that the nature of an enemy doth extenuate the honour of a service, being but a rebel and a savage, I differ from him; for I see the justest triumphs that the Romans in their greatest greatness did obtain, and that whereof the emperors in their styles took additions and denominations, were of such an enemy; that is, people barbarous, and not reduced to civility, magnifying a kind of lawless liberty, prodigal of life, hardened in body, fortified in woods and bogs, placing both justice and fecility in the sharpness of their swords. Such were the Germans and ancient Britons, and divers others. Upon which kind of people, whether the victory

ship inwardly, as I have had, shall find "bona revolt, it made no difference that ever I could find,
exta," whereby he may better ground a divination in honour. And, therefore, it is not the enriching
of good, than upon the dissection of a sacrifice. the predatory war that hath the pre-eminence in
But that part I leave, for it is fit for others to be honour; else should it be more honour to bring in
confident upon you, and you to be confident upon a carrack of rich burden, than one of the twelve
the cause, the goodness and justice whereof is Spanish apostles. But then this nature of people
such as can hardly be matched in any example, doth yield a higher point of honour (considering
it being no ambitious war of foreigners, but a in truth and substance) than any war can yield
recovery of subjects, and that after lenity of con- which should be achieved against a civil enemy,
ditions often tried; and a recovery of them not if the end may be "pacique imponere morem,"
only to obedience, but to humanity and policy, to replant and refound the policy of that nation,
from more than Indian barbarism. There is yet to which nothing is wanting but a just and civil
another kind of divination familiar in matters of government. Which design, as it doth descend
state, being that which Demosthenes so often to you from your noble father, (who lost his life
relieth upon in his time, where he saith, that in that action, though he paid tribute to nature,
which for the time past is worst of all, is for the and not to fortune,) so I hope your lordship shall
time to come the best, which is, that things go ill be as fatal a captain to this war, as Africanus was
not by accident but by error; wherein though to the war of Carthage, after that both his uncle
your lordship hath been a waking censor, yet, you and his father had lost their lives in Spain in the
must look for no other now, but "medice, cura same war.
teipsum;" and although your lordship shall not
be the blessed physician that cometh to the de-
clination of the disease, yet, you embrace that con-
dition which many noble spirits have accepted for
advantage, which is, that you go upon the greater
peril of your fortune, and the less of your reputa-
tion; and so the honour countervaileth the adven-
ture; of which honour your lordship is in no
small possession, when that her majesty, known

Now, although it be true, that these things which I have writ (being but representations unto your lordship of the honour and appearance of success and enterprise) be not much to the purpose of my direction, yet, it is that which is best to me, being no man of war, and ignorant in the particulars of state: for a man may by the eye set up the white right in the midst of the butt, though he be no archer. Therefore I will only

to be one of the most judicious princes in discern- add this wish, according to the English phrase,

ing of spirits that ever governed, hath made choice of you merely out of her royal judgment, (her affection inclining rather to continue your attendance,) into whose hands and trust to put the commandment and conduct of so great forces, the gathering in the fruit of so great charge, the exeention of so many councils, the redeeming of the

which termeth a well-wishing advice a wish, that your lordship in this whole action, looking forward, set down this position; that merit is worthier than fame; and looking back hither, would remember this text, that "obedience is better than sacrifice." For designing to fame and glory may make your lordship, in the adven

ture of your person, to be valiant as a private SIR FRANCIS BACON IN RECOMMENDATION OF



soldier, rather than as a general; it may make you in your commandments rather to be gracious than disciplinary; it may make you press action, in the respect of the great expectation conceived, rather hastily than seasonably and safely; it may make you seek rather to achieve the war by force, than by mixture of practice; it may make you (if God shall send you prosperous beginnings) rather seek the fruition of the honour, than the perfection of the work in hand. And for your proceeding like a good Protestant, (upon warrant, and not upon good intention,) your lordship knoweth, in your wisdom, that as it is most fit for you to desire convenient liberty of instruction, so it is no less fit for you to observe the due limits of them, remembering that the exceeding of them may not only procure (in case of adverse accident) a dangerous disavow, but also (in case of prosperous success) be subject to interpretation, as if all was not referred to the right end.

As the time of sowing of seed is known, but the time of coming up and disclosing is casual, or according to the season; so I am a witness to myself, that there hath been covered in my mind a long time a seed of affection and zeal towards your lordship, sown by the estimation of your virtues, and your particular honours and favours, to my brother deceased, and to myself; which seed still springing, now bursteth forth into this profession. And, to be plain with your lordship, it is very true, and no winds or noises of civil matters can blow this out of my head or heart, that your great capacity and love towards studies and contemplations, of a higher and worthier nature than popular, a nature rare in the world, and in a person of your lordship's quality almost singular, is to me a great and chief motive to draw my affection and admiration towards you: and, therefore, good my lord, if I may be of any

Thus I have presumed to write these few lines to your lordship, "in methodo ignorantiæ," which is, when a man speaketh of any subject not according to the parts of the matter, but accord-use to your lordship by my head, tongue, pen, ing to the model of his own knowledge and means, or friends, I humbly pray you to hold me most humbly desire your lordship, that the weak- your own: and herewithal, not to do so much disness thereof may be supplied in your lordship, by advantage to my good mind, nor partly, to your a benign acceptation, as it is in me by my best own worth, as to conceive, that this commendawishing. tion of my humble service produceth out of any FR. BACON. straits of my occasions, but merely out of an election, and indeed, the fulness of my heart. And so, wishing your lordship all prosperity, I




SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. ROBERT KEMPE, UPON THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. MR. KEMPE, this alteration is so great, as you might justly conceive some coldness of my affection towards you, if you should hear nothing from me, I living in this place. It is in vain to tell you, with what a wonderful still and calm this wheel is turned round, which, whether it be a remnant of her felicity that is gone, or a fruit of

No man can expound my doings better than your lordship, which makes me need to say the less; only I humbly pray you to believe that I aspire to the conscience and commendation of "bonus civis" and "bonus vir;" and that though I love some things better, I confess, that I love your lordship; yet, I love few persons better, both for gratitude's sake, and for virtues, which cannot hurt, but by accident. Of which my good affec- his reputation that is coming, I will not detertion it may please your lordship to assure your-mine; for, I cannot but divide myself, between self, of all the true effects and offices that I can her memory and his name. Yet, we account it yield for as I was ever sorry your lordship but as a fair morn before sunrising, before his should fly with waxen wings, doubting Icarus's majesty's presence; though, for my part, I see fortune; so, for the growing up of your own not whence any weather should arise. The feathers, be they ostriches or other kind, no man Papists are contained with fear enough, and hope shall be more glad; and this is the axle-tree, too much. The French is thought to turn his whereupon I have turned, and shall turn. Which practice upon procuring some disturbance in having already signified unto you by some near Scotland, where crowns may do wonders. But neans, having so fit a messenger for mine own this day is so welcome to the nation, and the time letter, I thought good to redouble also by writing. so short, as I do not fear the effect. My Lord of And so I commend you to God's protection. Southampton expecteth release by the next deFrom Gray's Inn, etc. spatch, and is already much visited, and much well wished. There is continual posting, by men of good quality towards the king, the rather,


July 19. 1600.

So, etc.

I think, because this springtime it is but a kind | portunity can possibly minister or offer. And of sport. It is hoped, that as the state here hath that is, the causes of Ireland, if they be taken by performed the part of good attorneys, to deliver the right handle: for if the wound be not ripped the king quiet possession of his kingdom; so the up again, and come to a festered sense, by new king will redeliver them quiet possession of their foreign succours, I think that no physician will go places, rather filling places void, than removing on much with letting blood in declinatione men placed. morbi," but will intend to purge and corroborate. To which purpose I send you mine opinion, without labour of words in the enclosed, and sure I am, that if you shall enter into the matter according to the vivacity of your own spirit, nothing can make unto you a more gainful return; for you shall make the queen's felicity complete, which now (as it is) is incomparable; and for yourself, you shall make yourself as good a patriot as you are thought a politic, and to have no less generous ends than dexterous delivery of yourself towards your ends; and as well to have true arts and grounds of government, as the facility and felicity of practice and negotiation; and to be as well seen in the periods and tides of estates, as in your own circle and way; than the which I suppose nothing can be a better addition and accumulation of honour unto you.

This, I hope, I may in privateness write, either as a kinsman, that may be bold, or as a scholar, that hath liberty of discourse, without committing of any absurdity. If not, I pray your honour to believe, I ever loved her majesty and the state, and now love yourself; and there is never any vehement love without some absurdity, as the Spaniard well saith, "desuario con la calentura." So, desiring your honour's pardon, I ever con

tinue, etc.




SIR, the occasion awaketh in me the remembrance of the constant and mutual good offices which passed between my good brother and yourself; whereunto, as you know, I was not altogether a stranger, though the time and design (as between brethren) made me more reserved. But well do I bear in mind the great opinion which my brother (whose judgment I much reverence) would often express to me of the extraordinary sufficiency, dexterity, and temper, which he had found in you, in the business and service

the king our sovereign lord. This latter bred in me an election, as the former gave an inducement, for me to address myself to you, and to make this signification of my desire, towards a mutual entertainment of good affection and correspondence between us, hoping that some good effect may result of it, towards the king's service, and that for our particulars, though occasion give you the precedence, of furthering my being known by good note unto the king; so, no long time will intercede, before I, on my part, shall have some means given to requite your favours, and verify your commendation. And so, with my loving commendations, (good Mr. Foules,) I leave you SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE LORD TREASURER, to God's goodness.


From Gray's Inn, this 25th of March.


I was sorry to find by your lordship's speech yesterday, that my last speech in Parliament. delivered in discharge of my conscience, my duty to God, her majesty, and my country, was offen


TER DEFEAT OF THE SPANIARDS IN IRELAND, sive: if it were misreported, I would be glad to


attend your lordship, to disavow any thing I said
not; if it were misconstrued, I would be glad to
expound my words, to exclude any sense I meant
not; if my heart be misjudged by imputation of
popularity, or opposition, I have great wrong,
and the greater, because the manner of my speech
did most evidently show that I spake most sim-
ply, and only to satisfy my conscience, and not
with any advantage or policy to sway the case,
and my terms carried all signification of duty and
zeal towards her majesty and he service. It is very
true, that from the beginning, whatsoever was a
double subsidy I did wish might for precedent's
sake appear to be extraordinary, and for discontent's
sake might not have been levied upon the poorer


As one that wisheth you all increase of honour, and as one that cannot leave to love the state, what interest soever I have, or may come to have in it, and as one that now this dead vacation time have some leisure ad aliud agendum," I will presume to propound unto you that which, though you cannot but see, yet I know not whether you apprehend and esteem it in so high a degree that is, for the best action of importation to yourself, of sound honour and merit to her majesty, and this crown, without ventosity or popularity, that the riches of any occasion, or the tide of any opVOL. III.-2

think this will prove, or more. This was my mind, I confess it: and therefore I most humbly pray your lordship, first, to continue me in your own good opinion, and then, to perform the part of an honourable good friend, towards your poor servant and ally, in drawing her majesty to accept of the sincerity and simplicity of my zeal, and to hold me in her majesty's favour, which is to me dearer than my life, and so, etc.

sort, though otherwise I wished it as rising as I | enclosed, because I greatly desire so far forth to
preserve my credit with you, as thus: that whereas
lately (perhaps out of too much desire, which in-
duceth too much belief) I was bold to say, that I
thought it as easy for your majesty to come out of
want, as to go forth of your gallery, your majesty
would not take me for a dreamer, or a projector.
I send your majesty therefore some grounds of
my hopes. And for that paper which I have
gathered of increasements" sperate:" I beseech
you to give me leave to think, that if any of the
particulars do fail, it will be rather for want of
workmanship in those that shall deal in them,
than want of materials in the things themselves.
The other paper hath many discarding cards; and

Your lordship's most humble in all duty.

A LETTER TO MR. MATTHEW, UPON SENDING HIS I send it chiefly, that your majesty may be the



I do very heartily thank you for your letter of the 24th of August, from Salamanca; and in recompense thereof, I send you a little work of mine, that hath begun to pass the world. They tell me my Latin is turned into silver, and become current. Had you been here you had been my inquisitor, before it came forth. But I think the greatest inquisitor in Spain will allow it. But one thing you must pardon me, if I make no haste to believe, that the world should be grown to such an ecstasy, as to reject truth in philosophy, because the author dissenteth in religion; no more than they do by Aristotle, or Averrois. My great work goeth forward, and after my manner, I alter even when I add : so that nothing is finished till all be finished. This I have written in the midst of a term and parliament, thinking no time so precious, but that I should talk of these matters with so good and dear a friend. And so, with my wonted wishes, I leave you to God's goodness.

From Gray's Inn, Febr. 17, 1610.



I may remember what Tacitus saith, by occasion that Tiberius was often and long absent from Rome, “in Urbe, et parva et magna negotia imperatorem simul premunt." But saith he, "in Recessu, dimissis rebus minoris momenti, summæ rerum magnarum magis agitantur." This maketh me think, it shall be no incivility to trouble your majesty with business, during your abode from London, knowing your majesty's meditations are the principal wheel of your estate, and being warranted by a former commandment, which I received from you.

less surprised by projectors, who pretend some-
times great discoveries and inventions, in things
that have been propounded and perhaps after a
better fashion, long since. God Almighty pre-
serve your majesty.

Your majesty's most humble and
devoted servant and subject.

April 25, 1610.



Your worthy chancellor, I fear, goeth his last day. God hath hitherto used to weed out such servants as grew not fit for your majesty, but now he hath gathered to himself a true sage or salvia out of your garden; but your majesty's service must not be mortal.

Upon this heavy accident, I pray your majesty, in all humbleness and sincerity, to give me leave to use a few words. I must never forget, when I moved your majesty for the attorney's place, it was your own sole act; more than that, Somerset, when he knew your majesty had resolved it, thrust himself into the business for a fee. And therefore I have no reason to pray to saints.

I shall now again make obligation to your majesty, first, of my heart, then, of my service, thirdly, of my place of attorney, which I think is honestly worth £6000 per annum, and, fourthly, of my place of the Star Chamber, which is worth £1600 per annum; and with the favour and countenance of a chancellor, much more.

I hope I may be acquitted of presumption, if I think of it, both because my father had the place, which is some civil inducements to my desire; and I pray God your majesty may have twenty no worse years in your greatness, than Queen Elizabeth had in her model, (after my father's placing,) and chiefly, because, if the chancellor's place went to the law, it was ever conferred upon some of the learned counsel, and never upon a judge.

I do now only send your majesty these papers For Audley was raised from king's sergeant, my

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