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first to his majesty's perusal before I acquainted | how easy it is for me to mistake, or not to attain, the counsel
which his majesty in his wisdom will pardon, For that part which concerneth the foreign correct, and direct. business, his majesty will graciously consider For that part touching the elections, I have
flourish; subjects are less burdened with taxes and tallages,and to employ the uttermost of our forces and means to recover Infinite other benefits redound to the state of a commonweal: and resettle the said Palatinate to our son and nur descendants, So in our practice, we suppose there hath been seldom any | purposing, nevertheless, according to our former inclination king that hath given more express testimonies and real so well grounded, not altogether to intermit (if the occasions pledges of this desire to have peace conserved than we have give us leave) the treaties of peace and accord, which we done in the whole course of our regiment.
have already begun, and whereof the coming on of the winter, For neither have we, for that which concerns ourselves, and the counterpoise of the actions of war, hitherto may giva been ready to apprehend or embrace any occasions or oppor. us as yet some appearance of hope. tunities of making war upon our neighbours; neither have But, forasınuch as it were great improvidence in depend pre omitted, for that which may concern the states abroad, upon the success of such treaties, and therefore good policy any good office or royal endeavour, for the quenching of the requires that we should be prepared for a war, which we sparks of troubles and discords in foreign parts. Wherein, intend for the recovery and assuring of the said Palatinate, as we bave been always ready and willing, so we wish that with the dependencies, (a design of no small charge and diffiwe had been always as happy and prevailing in our advices culty, the strength and conjunctures of the adverse party con. and counsels that tended to that end.
sidered,) we have thought good to take into our princely and And yet do we not forget that God hath put into our hands serious consideration and that with speed) all things that a sceptre over populous and warlike nations, which might may have relation 10 such a designment; amongst which we have moved us to second the affection and disposition of our hold nothing more necessary ihan to confer and advise with people, and to have wrought upon it, for our own ambition, the common council of our kingdom, upon this so important & if we had been so minded. But it hath sufficed unto us to subject. eeek a true and not swelling greatness in the plantations and For although the making of war or peace be a secret of improvements of such part of our dominions as have in empire, and a thing properly belonging to our high prerogaformer times been more desolate and uncivil, and in the tive royal and imperial power; yet, nevertheless, in causes of maintaining of all our loving subjects in general, in tranquil. that nature, which we shall think fit not to reserve, but to lity and security, and the other conditions of good govern-communicate, we shall ever think ourselves much assisted ment and happy times. But amongst other demonstrations and strengthenes oy the faithful advice and general assent of our constant purpose and provident care to maintain peace, of our loving subject there was never such a trial, nor so apparent to the world (as Moreover, tu man is so ignorant as to tapect that we in a theatre) as our persisting in the same resolution, since should be any ways able (moneys being the sinews of war) the time that our dear son-in-law was elected and accepted to enter into the list against so great potentates, without King of Bohemia ; by how much the motives tending to shake some large and bountiful help of treasure from our people, as and assail our said resolution were the more forcible. For well towards the maintenance of the war as towards the neither did the glory of having our dearest daughter and son relief of our crown and estate. Ant this the rather, for that in-law to wear a crown, nor the extreme alacrity of our we have now, by the space of full ten years (a thing unheard people devoted to that cause, nor the representations, which of in late times) subsisted by our own means, without being might be set before us of dangers, (if we should suffer a party chargeable to our people, otherwise than by some voluntary in Christendom, held commonly adverse and ill affected to gifts of some particulars; which, though in total amounting our state and government, to gather further reputation and to no great matter, we thankfully acknowledge at their strength,) transport us to enter into an auxiliary war in prose. hands: but as, while the affairs abroad were in greater calm, cution of that quarrel: but, contrariwise, finding the justice of we did content ourselves to recover our wants by provident the cause not so clear as that we could be presently therein retrenchment of charge, and honourable improvement of our satisfied, and weighing with ourselves likewise, that if the own, thinking to wear them out without troubling our people; kingdom of Bohemia had continued in the house of Austria ; so, in such a state of Christendom, as seemeth now to hang pet, nevertheless, the balance of Christendom had stood in over our heads, we durst no longer rely upon those slow no other sort than it had done for many years before without remedies, but thought necessary (according to the ancient increase of party; and chiefly fearing that the wars in those course of our progenitors) to resort to the good affections and parts of Germany, which have been hitherto the bulwark of aids of our loving subjects. Christendom against the approaches of the Turk, might, by Upon these considerations, and for that also in respect of the intestine dissensions, allure and let in the common so long interinission of a Parliament, the times may have enery, we did abstain to declare, or engage ourselves in that introduced some things fit to be reformed, either by new war, and were contented only to give permission to the am- laws, or by the moderate desires of our loving subjects, duti. bassador of our son-in-law, to draw some voluntary helps of fully intimated unto us, (wherein we shall ever be no less men and money from our subjects, being a matter that ready to give them all gracious satisfaction than their own Fiolated no treaty, and could not be denied in case of so near hearts can desire,) we have resolved, by the advice of our a conjunction.
privy council, to hold a Parliament at our city of WestminBut
, while we contained ourselves in this moderation, we ster. find the event of war hath much altered the case, by the late And because, as well this great cause, (there to be handled invasion of the Palatinate, whereby (howsoever under the amongst the rest, and to be weighed by the beam of the kingpretence of a diversion) we find our son, in fact, expulsed in dom,) as also the true and ancient institution of Parliament, part
, and in danger to be totally dispossessed of his ancient do require the Lower House (at this time if ever) to be com inberitance and patrimony, so long continued in that noble pounded of the gravest, ablest, and worthiest members that line; whereof we cannot but highly resent, if it should be may be found : we do hereby, out of the care of the common alienated and ravished from bim in our times, and to the pre- good, wherein themselves are participant, (without all preju judice of our grandchildren and line royal. Neither can we dice to the freedom of elections,) admonish all our loving hink it safe for us, in reason of state, that the county Pala- subjects that have votes in the elections of knights and tine
, carrying with itself an electorate, and having been so burgesses) of these few points following.
substantial citizens and burgesses, and generally such as ało Wherefore, finding a concurrence of reasons and respects interested and have portion in the estate. of religion, nature, honour, and estate, all of them inducing Secondly, That they make choice of such as are well u mno wise to endure so great an alteration, we are resolved affected in religion, without declining either on the one hand
communicated it with my colleagues, Sir Edward of, and the latter time I had begged it of your Coke, the two chief ji slices, and Serjeant Crew, lordship. who approve it well; and we are all of opinion, The cause of change may either be in myself that it is not good to have it more peremptory, or your lordship. I ought first to examine mymore particular, nor more sharp.
self, which I have done; and God is my witness, We are thinking of some commonwealth laws, I find all well, and that I have approved myself amongst which I would have one special for the to your lordship a true friend, both in the watery maintenance of the navy, as well to give occasion trial of prosperity, and in the fiery trial of adto publish (to his majesty's honour) what hath versity. If your lordship take any insatisfaction been already done; as, to speak plainly, to do touching the House, I humbly pray you, think your lordship's honour in the second place; and, better of it; for that motion to me was a second besides, it is agreeable to the times. God ever sentence, more grievous than the first, as things prosper you.
then stood and do yet stand: for it sentenced me Your lordship's obliged friend and faithful to have lost, both in mine own opinion, and much servant,
more in the opinion of others, that which was Fr. Verulam, Canc. saved to me, almost only, in the former sentence, October 18, 1620.
and which was more dear to me than all that which was taken from me, which is your lordship's love and favour: for had it not been for
that bitter circumstance, your lordship knows that TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.
you might have commanded my life and all that MY VERY good LORD,
is mine. But surely it could not be thal, nor any Your lordship will pardon me, if, partly in the thing in me, which wrought the change. It is freedom of adversity, and partly of former friend- likely, on the other part, that though your lordship, (the sparks whereof cannot but continue,) ship, in your nature, I know to be generous and I open myself to your lordship and desire also constant, yet I being now become out of sight, and your lordship to open yourself to me. The two out of use, your lordship having a flood of new last acts which you did for me, in procuring the friends, and your ears possessed perhaps by such releasement of my fine, and my quietus est, I ac- as would not leave room for an old, your lordship knowledge were effects, real and material, of may, even by course of the world and the overyour love and favour, which, as to my knowledge, bearing of others, be turned from me, and it were it never failed me in my prosperity; so, in these almost a miracle if it should be otherwise. But two things it seems not to have turned with the yet, because your lordship may still have so wheel. But the extent of these two favours is heroical a spirit as to stand out all these violent not much more than to keep me from persecution; assaults, which might have alienated you from for any thing further which might tend to my your friend, my humble suit to your lordship is, comfort and assistance, as I cannot say to myself that remembering your former friendship, which that your lordship hath forsaken me, so I see not began with your beginning, and since that time the effects of your undeserved, yea, undesired hath never failed on my part, your lordship would professions and promises, which, being made to deal clearly with me, and let me know whether a person in affliction, hath the nature after a sort I continue in your favour or no; and whether in of vows. But that which most of all makes me those poor requests, which I may yet make to his doubt of a change, or cooling in your lordship’s majesty, (whose true servant I ever was and am,) affection towards me, is, that being twice now at for the tempering of my misery, I may presume London, your lordship did not vouchsafe to see to use your lordship's favour and help, as I have me, though by messages you gave me hope there- done; for otherwise it were a kind of stupidness 10 blindness and superstition, or on the other hand to schism for me not to discern the change, for your lord
in me, and a great trouble also to your lordship, or turbulent disposition.
Thirdly and lastly, That they be truly sensible, not to dis- ship to have an importuner, instead of a friend value or disparage the House with bankrupts and necessitous and a suitor. Though, howsoever, if your lordpersons, that may desire long Parliaments only for protection; lawyers of mean account and estimation ; young men ship should never think of me more, yet in rethat are not ripe for grave consultations ; mean dependents spect of your former favours, which cannot alloupon great persons, that may be thought to have their voices
gether be made void, I must remain, &c. under command, and such like obscure and inferior persons : so that, to conclude, we may have the comfort to see before us the very face of a sufficient and well composed House, such as may be worthy to be a representative of the third estate of our kingdom, fit to nourish a loving and comfortable meet.
TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. Ing between us and our people, and fit to be a noble instrurent, under the blessing of Almighty God, and our princely MY VERY GOOD LORD, the loving conjunction
Though I returned an answer to your lordship's lates and peers, for the settling of so great affairs, as are before expressed.
last honourable and kind letter, by the same way
care and power, and wi
TO THE EARL OF ARUNDEL AND SURREY.
by which I received it, yet I humbly pray your lordship to give me leave to add these few lines. | MY VERY GOOD LORD, My lord, as God above is my witness, that I ever I was likely to have had the fortune of Cajus have loved and honoured your lordship as much, Plinius the elder, who lost his life by trying an I think, as any son of Adam can love or honour experiment about the burning the Mountain any thing that is a subject; and do still continue Vesuvius. For I was also desirous to try an exin as hearty and strong wishes of felicity to be periment or two, touching the conservation and heaped and fixed upon you as ever: and so yet I induration of bodies. As for the experiment protest, that at this time, as low as I am, I had itself, it succeeded excellently well; but in the rather sojourn the rest of my life in a college in journey (between London and Highgate,) I was Cambridge, than recover a good fortune by any taken with such a fit of casting, as I knew not other than yourself. But now, to recover your- whether it were the stone, or some surfeit, or self to me, (if I have you not already,) or to ease cold, or indeed a touch of them all three. But your lordship in any business of mine, wherein when I came to your lordship’s house, I was not your lordship would not so fully appear, or to be able to go back, and therefore was forced to take made partaker of your favours in the way that up ny lodging here, where your housekeeper is you like best, I would use any man who were very careful and diligent about me, which I assure your lordship's friend. Secondly, if in any thing myself your lordship will not only pardon towards of my former letters I have given your lordship him, but think the better of him for it. For inany distaste, either by the style of them or any deed your lordship's house was happy to me; particular passage in them, I humbly pray your and I kiss your noble hands for the welcome lordship’s benign construction and pardon. I which I am sure you give me to it, &c. confess it is my fault, though yet it be some hap- I know how unfit it is for me to write to your piness to me withal, that I many times forget my lordship with any other hand than my own; but, adversity: but I shall never forget to be, &c. by my troth, my fingers are so disjointed with
this fit of sickness, that I cannot steadily hold a pen.
LETTERS FROM BIRCH. ,
MR. FRANCIS BACON TO SIR JOHN PUCKERING, | the manner shall be to impeach the end, it shall LORD KEEPER OF THE GREAT SEAL.*
teach my devotion not to exceed wishes, and My Lord,--It is a great grief unto me, joined those in silence. Yet, notwithstanding, (to with marvel, that her majesty should retain a speak vainly as in grief,) it may be her majesty hard conceit of my speeches in parliament.f It hath discouraged as good a heart as ever looked might please her sacred majesty to think what toward her service, and as void of self-love. And my end should be in those speeches, if it were so, in more grief than I can well express, and not duty, and duty alone. I am not so simple much more than I can well dissemble, I leave but I know the common beaten way to please. your lordship, being as ever, And whereas popularity hath been ohjected, I Your lordship's entirely devoted, &c. muse what care I should take to please many, that take a course of life to deal with few. On the other side, her majesty's grace and particular favour towards me hath been such, as I esteem TO SIR THOMAS EGERTON, LORD KEEPER OF no worldly thing above the comfort to enjoy it, except it be the conscience to deserve it. But, IT MAY PLEASE your LORDSHIP, if tne not seconding of some particular person's
I am to make humble complaint to your lordopinion shall be presumption, and to differ upon ship of some hard dealing offered me by one
Sympson, a goldsmith, a man noted much, as I * Harl. MSS. vol. 286, No. 129, fol. 232. subsidies demanded of the House of Commons; to which he his purse; but yet I could scarcely have imaobeto biomesday, the 7th of March, 1592-2, upon the three have heard, for extremities and stoutness upon assented, but not to the payment of them under six years, gined he would have dealt either so dishonestly urging the necessities of the people, the danger of raising publie discontentment, and the setting of an evil precedent * From the original in the Hatfield Collection of State against themselves and their posterity. See Sir Simmons Papers, communicated to me by the Rev. William Murdin, D'Ewes's Journals, p. 493. He sat in that parliament, which B. D., and intended by him for the public in a third volume of met November 19, 1592, and was dissolved 10 April, 1593, as the collection of those papers, if his death had not prevented Que of the knights of the shire for Middlesex.
him from executing his design.
THE GREAT SEAL.*
towards myself, or so contemptuously towards causes, much more in matters of this nature, her majesty's service. For this Lombard (pardon especially in persons known to be qualified with me, I most humbly pray your lordship, if, being that place and employment, which, though unadmonished by the street he dwells in, I give worthy, I am vouchsafed, I enforce nothing, him that name) having me in bond for three hun- thinking I have done my part when I have made dred pounds principal, and I having the last term it known, and so leave it to your lordship's confessed the action, and by his full and direct honourable consideration. And, so with significonsent, respited the satisfaction till the begin- cation of my humble duty, &c. ning of this term to come, without ever giving me warning, either by letter or message, served an sxecution upon me, having trained me at such time as I came from the Tower, where Mr. Waad TO SIR ROBERT CECIL, SECRETARY OF STATE. can witness, we attended a service of no mean IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, importance;* neither would he so much as vouch
I humbly pray you to understand how badly I safe to come and speak with me to take any order have been used by the enclosed, being a copy of in it, though I sent for him divers times, and his a letter of complaint thereof, which I have written house was just by; handling it as upon despite, to the lord keeper. How sensitive you are of being a man I never provoked with a cross word, wrongs offered to your blood in my particular I no, nor with many delays. He would have have had not long since experience. But, herein urged it to have had me in prison; which he had I think your honour will be doubly sensitive, in done, had not Sheriff More, to whom I sent, tenderness also of the indignity to her majesty's gently recommended me to a handsome house in service; for as for me, Mr. Sympson might have Coleman street, where I am. Now, because he had me every day in London; and, therefore, to will not treat with me, I am enforced humbly to belay me while he knew I came from the Tower desire your lordship to send for him according to about her majesty's special service, was to my your place, to bring him to some reason; and this understanding very bold. And two days before forth with, because I continue here to my farther he brags he forbore me, because I dined with discredit and inconvenience, and the trouble of Sheriff More: so as with Mr. Sympson, examithe gentleman with whom I am. I have a hun- nations at the Tower are not so great a privilege, dred pounds lying by me, which he may have, eundo et redeundo, as Sheriff More's dinner. But and the rest upon some reasonable time and secu- this complaint I make in duty; and to that end rity, or, if need be, the whole; but with my more have also informed my Lord of Essex thereof; trouble. As for the contempt he hath offered, in for, otherwise his punishment will do me no regard her majesty's service to my understanding, good. carrieth a privilege eundo et redeundo in meaner So, with signification of my humble duty, I
It is not easy to determine what this service was; but it commend your honour to the divine preservation. seems to relate to the examination of some prisoner; perhaps At your honourable command particularly, Edward Squire, executed in November, 1598, for poisoning
F&. Bacon. the queen's saddle; or Valentine Thomas, who accused the
From Coleman street, this King of Scots of practices against Queen Elizabeth (Histori. cal View, p. 178;] or one Stanley, concerning whom I shall
24th of September, 1598. insert here passages from two MS. letters of John Chamber. lain, Esq., to his friend, Dudley Carleton, Esq.; afterwards ambassador to Venice, the United Provinces, and France ; these letters being part of a very large collection, from 1598
TO MR. SECRETARY CECIL. to 1625, which I transcribed from the originals. “One Stan IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, ley," says Mr. Chamberlain, in his letter dated at London, 3d of October, 1698, “that came in sixteen days over land
Because we live in an age, where every man's with letters out of Spain, is lately committed to the Tower. imperfections are but another's fable; and that He was very earnest to have private conference with her there fell out an accident in the Exchequer, which majesty, pretending matter of great importance, which he would by no means utter to anybody else.”
I know not how, nor how soon may be traduced, letter, dated 20th of November, 1598, Mr. Chamberlain ob though I dare trust rumour in it, except it be serves, that on “the day that they looked for Stanley's malicious, or extreme partial; I am bold now to arraignment, he came not himself, but sent his forerunner, one squire, that had been an under purveyor of the stable, possess your honour, as one that ever I found who being in Spain was dealt withal by one Walpole, a careful of my advancement, and yet more jealous Jesuit, to poison the queen and the Earl of Essex; and ac. of my wrongs, with the truth of that which passcordingly came prepared into England, and went with the earl in his own ship the last journey, and poisoned the arms ed; deferring my farther request, until I may or handles of the chair he used to sit in, with a confection he attend your honour: and so, I continue had received of the Jesuit; as likewise he had done the
Your honour's very humble and pummel of the queen's saddle, not past five days before his going to sea. But, because nothing succeeded of it, the priest
particularly bounden, thinking he had either changed his purpose, or betrayed it,
FR. Bacox. gave Stanley instructions to accuse him; thereby to get him Gray's Inn, this more credit, and to be revenged of Squire for breaking pro
24th of April, 1601. toise. The fellow confessed the whole practice, and, as it seemed, died very penitent.”
* From the Hatfield Collection
TO ROBERT, LORD CECIL. *
go forward, your lordship shall, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP,
in a few days, hear; meanwhile, if you will not They say late thanks are ever best: but the be pleased to take farther day with this lewd felreason was, I thought to have seen your lordship low, I hope your lordship will not suffer him to ere this; howsoever, I shall never forget this take any part of the penalty, but principal, inteyour last favour amongst others; and it grieveth rest, and costs. me not a little, that I find myself of no use to So, I remain your lordship's such an honourable and kind friend.
most bounden, For that matter, I think I shall desire your
Fr. Bacon. assistance for the punishment of the contempt;
3d July, 1603.
TO ROBERT, LORD CECIL.
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP,
In answer of your last letter, your money shall
The lordship undertaken, which was a fortnight. Nay, money I find so hard to come by at this rest cannot be forgotten; for I cannot forget your time, as I thought to have become an humble lordship’s dum memor ipse mei: and if there have suitor to your honour to have sustained me with been aliquid nimis, it shall be amended. And, to your credit for the present from urgent debts,
be plain with your lordship, that will quicken me with taking up three hundred pounds till I can
now which slackened me before. Then I thought put away some land. But, I am so forward with you might have had more use of me, than now, I some sales, as this request I hope I may forbear. suppose, you are like to have. Not but I think For my estate, (because your honour hath care
the impediment will be rather in my mind than of it,) it is thus: I shall be able with selling the
in the matter or times. But, to do you service, I skirts of my living in Hertfordshiret to preserve
will come out of my religion at any time. the body, and to leave myself, being clearly out be such as might grace me, since the matter will
For my knighthood, * I wish the manner might of debt, and having some money in my pocket, not: I mean, that I might not be merely gregathree hundred pounds land per annum, with a fair house
, and the ground well timbered. This is rious in a troop. The coronation is at hand. “It now my labour.
may please your lordship to let me hear from you For my purpose or course, I desire to meddle speedily. So I continue as little as I can in the king's causes, his majesty
Your lordship's ever much bounden, now abounding in council; and to follow my From Gorhambury, this 16th of July, 1603.
Fr. Bacon. private thrist and practice, and to marry with some convenient advancement. For, as for any ambition, I do assure your honour, mine is quenched. THE BEGINNING OF A LETTER IMMEDIATELY In the queen's my excellent mistress's time, the AFTER MY LORD TREASURER'S+ DECEASE. I quorum was small; her service was a kind of IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY : freehold, and it was a more solemn time. All If I shall seem, in these few lines, to write chose points agreed with my nature and judgment. majora quam pro forluna, it may please your maMy ambition now I shall only put upon my pen, jesty to take it to be an effect, not of presumption, whereby I shall be able to maintain memory and but of affection. For, of the one I was never merit of the times succeeding.
noted; and for the other, I could never show it Lastly, for this divulged and almost prostituted hitherto to the full, being as a hawk tied to antitle of knighthood, I could, without charge, by other's fist, that might sometimes bait and proffer, your honour's mean, be content to have it, both but could never fly. And, therefore, if, as it was because of this late disgrace, and because I have said to one that spoke great words, Amice, verba three new knights in my mess in Gray's Inn com- tua desiderant civitatem,ĝ so your majesty say to mons; and because I have found out an alderman's me, “ Bacon, your words require a place to speak daughter, a handsome maiden to my liking. So them;" I must answer, that place, or not place, is as, if your honour will find the time, I will come in your majesty to add or refrain : and, though I to the court from Gorhambury, upon any warning. never grow eager but to ******, yet your ma
jesty. From the Hatfield Collection.
* He was knighted at Whitehall, July 23, 1603. + Gorhambury
| Robert, Earl of Salishury, who died 24th of May, 1612. * Probably the lady whom he afterwards married, Alice, | The draught of this imperfect letter is written chiefly ir Ste of the daughters and cocheirs of Benedict Barnham, Esq., Greek characters.
She survived her husband above & These words of Themistocles are cited likewise by enco twenty years. Life of Lord Bacon by Dr. William Raxley.
Bacon at the end of his book De Augmentis Scientiarum
alderman of London.