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TO THE KING, IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE LORD majesty, this most humble oblation of myself; I

may truly say with the psalm, Multum inco. IT MAY PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENT MAJESTY, fuit anima mea ; for my life hath been conversant

I cannot but endeavour to merit, considering in things, wherein I take little pleasure. Your your preventing graces, which is the occasion of majesty may have heard somewhat, that my father these few lines.

was an honest man; and somewhat yet, I may Your majesty hath lost a great subject and a have been of myself, though not to make any true great servant. But, if I should praise him in judgment by, because I have hitherto had only propriety, I should say that he was a fit man to potestatem verborum, nor that neither. I was three keep things from growing worse; but no very fit of my young years bred with an ambassador in man to reduce things to be much better. For he France, and since I have been an old truant in the loved to have the eyes of all Israel a little too school-house of your council chamber, though on much on himself, and to have all business still the second form, yet longer than any that now under the hammer, and, like clay in the hands of sitteth hath been in the head form. If your the potter, to mould it as he thought good; so that majesty find any aptness in me, or if you find he was more in operatione than in opere. And, any scarcity in others, whereby you may think it though he had fine passages of action, yet the fit for your service to remove me to business of real conclusions came slowly on. So that, al state, although I have a fair way before me for though your majesty hath grave counsellors and profit, and, by your majesty's grace and favour, worthy persons left, yet you do, as it were, turn a for honour and advancement, and in a course less leaf wherein, if your majesty shall give a frame exposed to the blast of fortune, yet, now that he and constitution to matters before you place the is gone quo vivente virtutibus certissimum exitium persons, in my simple opinion, it were not amiss. I will be ready as a chessman, to be wherever But the great matter, and most instant for the your majesty's royal hand shall set me. Your present, is the consideration of a Parliament, for majesty will bear me witness, I have not sudtwo effects ; the one for the supply of your estate, denly opened myself thus far. I have looked on the other for the better knitting of the hearts of your upon others. I see the exceptions; I see the dissubjects unto your majesty, according to your in- tractions; and I fear Tacitus will be a prophet, finite merit; for both which, Parliaments have magis alii homines, quam alii morcs. I know mine been, and are, the ancient and honourable remedy. own heart; and I know not whether God, that

Now, because I take myself to have a little hath touched my heart with the affection, may not skill in that region, as one that ever affected that touch your royal heart to discern it. Howsoever, your majesty might, in all your causes, not only I shall go on honestly in mine ordinary course, prevail, but prevail with satisfaction of the inner and supply the rest in prayers for you, remainman; and though no man can say but I was a ing, &c. perfect and peremptory royalist, yet, every man makes me believe that I was never one hour out of credit with the Lower House; my desire is, to knew whether your majesty will give me leave to meditate and propound unto you some preparative remembrances, touching the future Parliament.

*** Lastly, I will make two prayers unto Your majesty may truly perceive that, though your majesty, as I used to do to God Almighty, I cannot challenge to myself either invention or when I commend to him his own glory and judgment, or elocution, or method, or any of cause; so I will pray to your majesty for those powers, yet my offering is care and obser- yourself. vance: and, as my good old mistress was wont to The one is, that these cogitations of want, do call me her watch candle, because it pleased her not any ways trouble or vex your mind. I to say I did continually burn, (and yet she suf- remember Moses saith of the land of promise, that fered me to waste almost to nothing;) so I must it was not like the land of Egypt, that was much more owe the like duty to your majesty, by watered with a river, but was watered with whom my fortunes have been settled and raised. showers from heaven; whereby I gather, God And so, craving pardon, I rest

preferreth, sometimes uncertainties before cerYour inajesty's most humble

tainties, because they teach a more immediate servant devote, F. B. dependence upon his providence. Sure I am, 31 May, 1612

nil novi accidit vobis. It is no new thing for the greatest kings to be in debt: and, if a man shall parvis componere magna, I have seen an

Earl of Leicester, a Chancellor Hatton, an Earl IT MAY PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENT MAJESTY,

of Essex, and an Earl of Salisbury, in debt; and My principal end being to do your majesty sersice, I crave leave to make, at this time, to your

The beginning of this letter is wanting



yet was it no manner of diminution to their power ted to the subcommissioners, touching the repair or greatness.

and improvement of your majesty's means: and My second prayer is, that your majesty, in this I have done, not only in meeting, and conrespect of the hasty freeing of your estate, ference, and debate with the rest, but also by my would not descend to any means, or degree of several and private meditation and inquiry: so means, which carrieth not a symmetry with your that, besides the joint account, which we shall majesty and greatness. He is gone from whom give to the lords, I hope I shall be able to give those courses did wholly flow. So have your your majesty somewhat ex pro prio. For as no wants and necessities in particular, as it were, man loveth better consulere in commune than I hanged up in two tablets before the eyes of your do; neither am I of those fine ones that use to Lords and Commons, to be talked of for four keep back any thing, wherein they think they months together; to have all your courses, to may win credit apart, and so make the consultahelp yourself in revenue or profit, put into printed tion almost inutile. So, nevertheless, in cases books, which were wont to be held arcana where matters shall fall upon the by, perhaps of imperii; to have such worms of aldermen, to no less worth than that, which is the proper sublend for ten in the hundred upon good assurance, ject of the consultation; or where I find things and with such * *, as if it should save the bark passed over too slightly, or in cases where that, of your fortune; to contract still where might be which I should advise, is of that nature, as I had the readiest payment, and not the best bar- hold it not fit to be communicated to all those gain; to stir a number of projects for your profit, with whom I am joined; these parts of business and then to blast them, and leave your majesty I put to my private account; not because I would nothing but the scandal of them; to pretend an be officious, (though I profess I would do works even carriage between your majesty's rights and of supererogation if I could,) but in a true discrethe ease of the people, and to satisfy neither. tion and caution. And your majesty had some These courses, and others the like, I hope, are taste in those notes which I gave you for the gone with the deviser of them, which have turned wards, (which it pleased you to say, were no your majesty to inestimable prejudice.*

tricks nor novelties, but true passages of busiI hope your majesty will pardon my liberty of ness,) that mine own particular remembrances writing. I know these things are majora quam and observations are not like to be unprofitable. pro fortunâ: but they are minora quam pro studio Concerning which notes for the wards, though I et voluntate. I assure myself, your majesty might say, sic vos non vobis, yet let that pass. taketh not me for one of a busy nature; for my

I have also considered fully, of that great prostate being free from all difficulties, and I having position which your majesty commended to my such a large field for contemplations, as I have care and study, touching the conversion of your partly, and shall much more make manifest to revenue of land into a multiplied present revenue your majesty and the world, to occupy my of rent: wherein, 1 say, I have considered of the thoughts, nothing could make me active but love means and course to be taken of the assurance, and affection. So, praying my God to bless and of the rates, of the exceptions, and of the arguyour person and estate, &c.

ments for and against it. For, though the project itself be as old as I can remember, and falleth under every man's capacity, yet the dispute and manage of it, asketh a great deal of consideration and judgment; projects being, like Æsop's tongues, the best meat and the worst, as they are chosen and handled.

But surely, ubi deficiunt IT MAY PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENT MAJESTY, remedia ordinaria, recurrendum est ad extraordi

I have, with all possible diligence, since your naria. Of this also I am ready to give your majesty's progress, attended the service commit-, majesty an account.

Generally, upon this subject of the repair of * It will be but justice to the memory of the Earl of Balis. your majesty's means, I beseech your majesty to bury, to remark, that this disadvantageous character of him, give me leave to make this judgment, that your by Sir Francis Bacon, seems to have been heightened by the prejudices of the latter against that able minister, majesty's recovery must be by the medicines of Etounded upon some suspicions, that the earl had not served the Galenists and Arabians, and not of the chyhim with so much zeal as he might have expected from so mists or Paracelsians. For it will not be wrought hear a relation, either in Queen Elizabeth's reign, or of that of her successor. Nor is it any just imputation on his lord by any one fine extract, or strong water, but by a ship, that he began to decline in King James the First's good skilful company of a number of ingredients, and mands on the lord treasurer, which all his skils, in the busi: those by just weight and proportion, and that of ness of the finances, could not answer, but which drew some simples, which perhaps of themselves, or finen him advices and remonstrances still extant, which that in over-great quantity, were little better than el ment against his old servant and even retained it against poisons, but

, mixed and broken, and in just quantity, are full of virtue. And, secondily that as





your majesty's growing behindhand, hath been in general have place next the e.dest brothers' work of time, so must likewise be your majesty's wives, I hold convenient. coming forth and making even. Not but I wish Lastly, Whereas it is desired, that the apparent it were by all good and fit means accelerated, but heirs males of the bodies of the baronets may be that I foresee, that if your majesty shall propound knighted during the life of their fathers; for that to yourself to do it per saltum, it can hardly be I have received from the lord chamberlain a without accidents of prejudice to your honour, signification, that your majesty did so understand safety, or profit.

it, I humbly subscribe thereunto with this, that Endorsed,

the baronets' eldest sons being knights, do not

take place of ancient knights, so long as their My letter to the king, touching his estate in gene- fathers live. ral, September 18, 1612.

All which, nevertheless, I humbly submit to your majesty's judgment. Your majesty's most humble and most bounden servant,


According to your highness's pleasure, signified by my Lord Chamberlain,* I have considered of the petition of certain baronets,+ made unto your majesty for confirmation and extent, or IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EICELLENT MAJESTY, explanation of certain points mentioned in their

Having understood of the death of the lord charter, and am of opinion, that first, whereas it chief justice, * I do ground, in all humbleness, an is desired, that the baronets be declared a middle assured hope, that your majesty will not think of degree, between baron and knight, I hold this to any other but your poor servants, your attorneys be reasonable as to their placing.

and your solicitor, f one of them for that place. Secondly, Where it is desired, that unto the Else we shall be like Noah's dove, not knowing words degree or dignity of baron, the word honour where to rest our feet. For the places of rest, might be added; I know very well, that in the after the extreme painful places wherein we serve, preface of the baronets' patent it is mentioned, have used to be either the lord chancellor's place, that all honours are derived from the king. I find or the mastership of the rolls, or the places of also, that in the patent of the baronets, which are the chief justices; whereof, for the first, I could marshalled under the barons, (except it be certain be almost loath to live to see this worthy counselprincipals,) the word honour is granted. I find lor fail. The mastership of the rolls is blocked also, that the word dignity is many times in law with a reversion.g My Lord Coke is like to outa superior word to the word honour, as being live us both : so as, if this turn fail, I, for my applied to the king himself, all capital indict- part, know not whither to look. I have served ments concluding contra coronam et dignitatem your majesty above a prenticehood, full seven nostram. It is evident also, that the word honour years and more, as your solicitor, which is, I and honourable are used in these times in common think, one of the painfullest places in your kingo speech very promiscuously. Nevertheless, be- dom, specially as my employments have been: cause the style of honour belongs chiefly to peers and God hath brought mine own years to fifty. and counsellors, I am doubtful what opinion to two, which, I think, is older than ever any solici. give therein.

tor continued unpreferred. My suit is principally Thirdly, Whereas it is believed, that if there that you would remove Mr. Attorney to the place. be any question of precedence touching baronets, If he refuse, then I hope your majesty will seek it may be ordered, that the same be decided by no farther than myself, that I may at last, out the commissioners marshal; I do not see but it of your majesty's grace and favour, step forwards may be granted them for avoiding disturbances.

to a place either of more comfort or more ease. Fourthly, For the precedence of baronets I find Besides, how necessary it is for your majesty to no alteration or difficulty, except it be in this, strengthen your service amongst the judges by a that the daughters of baronets are desired to be chief justice which is sure to your prerogative, declared to have precedence before the wives of your majesty knoweth. Therefore, I cease farther knights' eldest sons; which, because it is a degree to trouble your majesty, humbly craving pardon, hereditary, and that, in all examples, the daughters

Sir Thomas Fleming, who died about Angust, 1613. Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk.

+ Sir Henry Hobart, who was made Lord Chief Justice of + The order of baronets was created by patent of King the Common Pleas, November 26, 1613, in the room James I., dated the 22d of May, 1611. The year following, a Edward Coke, removed to the post of Lord Chief Justice of decree was made relating to their place and precedence; the King's Bench, October 25. and four years after, viz., in 1616, another decree to the same I Sir Francis Bacon himself, who was appointed attorney. purpose. See Selden's Titles of Honour, Part II., Ch. V., p. general, Oct. 27, 1013. 821. Cn. XI., p. 910, and 906. 2d Edit. fol. 1613.

To Sir Julius Cæsar.

and relying wholly upon your goodness and me with wonderful tokens of kindness. We both remembrance, and resting, in all true humbleness, wept, which I do not often. Your majesty's most devoted, and

Endorsed, faithful subject and servant, A letter to Sir George Villiers, touching a message FR. Bacon.

brought to him by Mr. Shute, of a promise of the chancellor's place.

ploy it.

TO MR. MURRAY." Good MR. MURRAY, According to his majesty's pleasure by you MR. TOBIE MATTIJEW* TO SIR FRANCIS BACON,

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. signified to me, we have attended my lord chancellor,t my lord treasurer, and Mr. Chancel. May it please you, Sir, lor of the Exchequer, concerning Sir Gilbert

The notice I have from my Lord Roos, Sir Houghton's patent stayed at the seal; and we

Henry Goodere, and other friends, of the extreme have acquainted them with the grounds and state

obligation wherein I continue towards you, toof the suit

, to justify them that it was just and gether with the conscience I have of the knowbeneficial to his majesty. And for any thing we

ledge how dearly and truly I honour and love you, could perceive by any objection or reply they and daily pray that you may rise to that height made, we left them in good opinion of the same, which the state wherein you live can give you, with this, that because my lord chancellor (by the hath taken away the wings of fear, whereby I advice, as it seemeth, of the other two) had ac

was almost carried away from daring to importune quainted the council-table, for so many as were


in this kind. But I know how good you have then present

, with that suit amongst others, they always been, and are still, towards me; or rather thought fit to stay till his majesty's coming to because I am not able to comprehend how much town, being at hand, to understand his farther it is ; I will presume there is enough for any use, pleasure. We purpose, upon his majesty's com

whereupon an honest humble servant may eming, to attend his majesty, to give him a more particular account of this business, and some

It imports the business of my poor estate, tha other. Meanwhile, finding his majesty to have

I be restored to my country for some time; and I care of the matter, we thought it our duty to have Jivers friends in that court, who will further return this answer to you in discharge of his

my desire thereof, and particularly Mr. Secretary majesty's direction. We remain

Lake and my Lord Roos, whom I have desired to Your assured friends,

confer with you about it. But nothing can be Fr. Bacon, Henry Yelverton.

done therein, unless my Lord of Canterburyt July 6, 1615.

may be made propitious, or at least not averse; nor do I know in the world how to charm him but

by the music of your tongue. I beseech you, sir, TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS.

lose some minutes upon me, which I shall be S18-The

glad to pay by whole years of service; and call message which I received from

you by Mr. Shute hath bred in me such belief and to mind, if it please you, the last speech you made

me, that if I should continue as I then was, and confidence as I will now wholly rely upon your neither prove ill-affected to the state, nor become excellent and happy self. When persons of

otherwise than a mere secular man in my religion, greatness and quality begin speech with me of the matter, and offer me their good offices, I can On my part the conditions are performed ; and it

you would be pleased to negotiate for my return. but toys: I am yours surer to you than to mine remains, that you do the like : nor can i doubt

but that the nobleness of your nature, which loves own life ; for, as they speak of the turquois stone in a ring, I will break into twenty pieces before nothing in the world so well as to be doing of you have the least fall. God keep you ever.

good, can descend from being the attorney-general Your truest servant,

* Son of Dr. Tobie Matthew, Archbishop of York. He was

Fr. Bacon. February 15, 1615.

Church, and educated there. During his travels abroad, he

was seduced to the Romish religion by Father Parsons. This My lord chancellor is prettily amended. I was cccasioned his living out of his own country from the year with him yesterday almost half an hour, He used 1607 to 1617, when he had leave to return to England. He

was again ordered to leave it in October, 1618; but, in 1622, was recalled to assist in the match with Spain ; and, on account of his endeavours to promote it, was knighted by King James I. at Royston, on the 10th of October, 1623. He trans

lated into Italian Sir Francis Bacon's Essays, and died at Bir Pulk Grevile, advanced to that post October 1, 1614, Ghent in Flanders, October 13, 1655, N. S. in the room of Sir Julius Cæsar, made Master of the Rolls.

+ Dr. George Albot. Vol. III.--13


born at Oxford in 1578, while his father was Dean of Christ

• Harl. MSS. vol. 6966.
+ Ellesmere.
* Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk.

10 a great king, to be solicitor for one of the MR. TOBIE MATTHEW TO SIR FRANCIS BACON, meanest subjects that he hath.

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. I send my letter to my lord's grace open, that MAY IT PLEASE YOUR Horour, before you seal it (if you shall think fit to seal it, Such as know your honour may congratulate and rather not to deliver it open) you may see the with you the favour which you have lately received reasons that I have; which, if I be not partial, are from his majesty, of being made a counsellor of very pregnant. Although I confess, that till it state :* but as for me, I must have leave to conwas now very lately motioned to me by some gratulate with the council-iable, in being so happy honourable friends, who have already procured to as to have you for an assessor. I hope these are disimpression his majesty of some bard conceit but beginnings, and that the marriage, which now he had me in, I did not greatly think thereof; I perceive that fortune is about to make with and now I am full of hope that I shall prevail

. virtue, will be consummate in your person. I can For supposing that my Lord of Canterbury's mind not dissemble, though I am ashamed to mention, is but made of iron, the adamant of your persua- the excessive honour which you have vouchsafed sion will have power to draw it. It may please to do unto my picture. But shame ought not to you either to send a present answer hereunto, or, be so hateful as sin; and without sin I know not since I am not worthy of so much favour, to tell how to conceal the extreme obligation, into which either of those honourable persons aforenamed what I am entered thereby, which is incomparably more the answeris, that accordingly they may co-operate. than I can express, and no less than as much as I

This letter goes by Sir Edward Parham, a gen- am able to conceive. And as the copy is more tleman whom I have been much beholden to. I fortunate than the original, because it hath the know him to be a perfect honest man; and since, I honour to be under your eye, so the original, being protest, I had rather die than deceive you, I will much more truly yours than the copy can be, humbly pray, that he may rather receive favour aspires, by having the happiness to see you, to froin you than otherwise, when he shall come in put the picture out of countenance. your way, which at one time or other all the I understand by Sir George Petre, who is arworld there must do. And I shall acknowledge rived here at the Spa, and is so wise as to honour myself much bound to you, as being enabled by you extremely, though he have not the fortune to this means to pay many of my debts to him. be known to your honour, that he had heard how

I presume to send you the copy of a piece of a my Lord of Canterbury had been moved in my letter, which Galileo, of whom I am sure you behalf, and that he gave way unto my return. have heard, wrote to a monk of my acquaintance This, if it be true, cannot have happened without in Italy, about the answering of that place in some endeavour of your honour; and, therefore, Joshua, which concerns the sun's standing still, howsoever I have not been particularly advertised and approving thereby the pretended falsehood of that your honour had delivered my letter to his Copernicus's opinion. The letter was written by grace; yet now methinks I do as good as know it, occasion of the opposition, which some few in and dare adventure to present you with my humItaly did make against Galileo, as if he went blest thanks for the favour. But the main point about to establish that by experiments which ap- is, how his majesty should be moved ; wherein pears to be contrary to Holy Scripture. But he my friends are straining courtesy; and unless I makes it appear the while by this piece of a let- have your honour for a master of the ceremonies to ter which I send you, that if that passage of take order, who shall begin, all the benefit, that I Scripture doth expressly favour either side, it is can reap by this negotiation, will be to have the for the affirmative of Copernicus's opinion, and reputation of little judgment in attempting that for the negative of Aristotle's. To an attorney- which I was not able to obtain; and that howsoever general in the midst of a town, and such a one I have shot fair, I know not how to hit the mark. as is employed in the weightiest affairs of the I have been directed by my Lord Roos, who was kingdom, it might seem unseasonable for me to the first mover of this stone, to write a letter, interrupt you with matter of this nature. But I which himself would deliver to the Master of the know well enough in how high account you have Horse,who doth me the honour to wish me very the truth of things : and that no day can pass, well: and I have obeyed his lordship, and beseech wherein you give not liberty to your wise thoughts your honour, that you will be pleased to prevent, of looking upon the works of nature. It may or to accompany, or second it with your commenplease you to pardon the so much trouble which dation, lest otherwise the many words that I have í give you in this kind ; though yet, I confess, I used have but the virtue of a single 0, or cipher. do not deserve a pardon, because I find not in But, indeed, if I had not been overweighed by the myself a nurpose of forbearing to do the like here

* Sir Francis Bacon was sworn at Greenwich of the privy. after. I most numbly kiss your hand.

council, June 9, 1616, Your most faithful and affectionate servant, + Grandson of John, the first Lord Petre, and son of Wil.


liam, second baron of that name.

Bir George Villiers, who was appointed to that office, Brussels, this 21st of April, 1016.

January 4, 1615-6.

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