Rubberlike Elasticity: A Molecular Primer
Elastomers and rubberlike materials form a critical component in diverse applications that range from tyres to biomimetics and are used in chemical, biomedical, mechanical and electrical engineering. This updated and expanded edition provides an elementary introduction to the physical and molecular concepts governing elastic behaviour, with a particular focus on elastomers. The coverage of fundamental principles has been greatly extended and fully revised, with analogies to more familiar systems such as gases, producing an engaging approach to these phenomena. Dedicated chapters on novel uses of elastomers, covering bioelastomers, filled elastomers and liquid crystalline elastomers, illustrate the established and emerging applications at the forefront of physical science. With a list of experiments and demonstrations, problem sets and solutions, this is a self-contained introduction to the topic for graduate students, researchers and industrialists working in the applied fields of physics and chemistry, polymer science and engineering.
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atoms backbone bimodal distribution bimodal networks bioelastomers birefringence bonds chemical constant constrained junction constraints copolymers cross links crystalline curve cyclic decrease deﬁned deformation degree of swelling diluent distribution effects elastic free energy elastin elastomeric elongation end-linking entropy equation equilibrium Erman and Mark example experimental extension fe/f ﬁgure ﬁlled ﬁnal ﬁrst ﬁxed ﬂexibility Flory ﬂuctuations function Gaussian glass transition temperature groups illustrated in Figure increase isotropic length liquid-crystalline materials measurements mechanical properties melting point modulus molecular weight molecules natural rubber network chains network structure non-Gaussian obtained PDMS PDMS networks phantom network model phase Polyisobutylene polymer polymer chains polymerization polysiloxane ratio reaction reinforcement repeat units rubberlike elasticity sample segmental orientation short chains shown in Figure side chains signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly silica solvent speciﬁc strain-induced crystallization stress–strain isotherms stretching studies sufﬁciently swollen techniques temperature thermodynamic thermoelastic Treloar typical ultimate properties undeformed uniaxial unimodal upturns values volume
Page 25 - Increase in temperature increases the chaotic molecular motions of the chains and thus increases the tendency toward the more random state. As a result there is a decrease in length at constant force, or an increase in force at constant length. This is strikingly similar to the behavior of a compressed gas, in which the extent of deformation is given by the reciprocal volume 1/V. The pressure of the gas is largely entropically derived, with increase in deformation (increase in 1/V) also corresponding...
Page 113 - Segments close together in space were linked irrespective of their locations along the chain trajectories, thus resulting in a highly random network structure in which the number and locations of the cross-links were essentially unknown. New synthetic techniques are now available, however, for the preparation of "model" polymer networks of known structure.42'48 An example is the reaction shown in Fig.
Page 22 - The first requirement arises from the fact that the molecules in a rubber or elastomeric material must be able to alter their arrangements and extensions in space dramatically in response to an imposed stress, and only a long-chain molecule has the required very large number of spatial arrangements of very different extensions. This versatility is illustrated in Fig.
Page 143 - ... of simulating chain ordering in copolymers composed of two comonomers, at least one of which is crystallizable. Typically, the chains are placed in parallel, two-dimensional arrangements. Neighboring chains are then searched for like-sequence matches that could lead to the formation of crystallites, in order to estimate extents of crystallinity. Chains stacked in arbitrary registrations are taken to model quenched samples. Annealed samples, on the other hand, are modeled by sliding the chains...
Page 24 - The molecular origin of the elastic force / exhibited by a deformed elastomeric network can be elucidated through thermoelastic experiments, which involve the temperature dependence of either the force at constant length L or the length at constant force [1, 3].