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AUTHOR OF PRACTICAL AND MENTAL ARITHMETIC,' INTELLECTUAL AXD
PRACTICAL GRAMMAR,' AND ` INTRODUCTOWY ARITHMETIC.'
TRUMAN & SPOFFORD.
Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1832. by
PERKINS & MARVIN,
In the Clerk's Ofice of the District Court of Massachusetts.
THE following work was composed, as is indicated by the title, on what is styled in Germany and Switzerland the “ Producttve System of lustruction.” It is in these countries that the subject of Education has been deemed a matter of paramount importance. The art of teaching, particularly, has there been most ably and micutely investigated. To give a brief accouot of the different system which have prevailed there, may not be irrelevant ou the present occasion, as they assist in forming an opinion of the comparativo merits of the “Productive System," on which this work is principally based.
"In reference to intellectual education, the persous who were instrumental in producing the reformation in schools, in the last century, in these countnes, may be divided into four classes-tho Hunanists, Philan thropists, Pestalozzian and the Productive Schools
"At the restoration of learning, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the classic were brought out from the libraries of the cloisten in which they had been buried. As they presented the only eximples of exajted seatinents and elevated style which the secular literature of the age afforded, they were regarded as toe only means of acquiring enlarged views and a liberal education, the study of them received the proud title of Humanity; and the realous and meritoriou men who employed this means for the revival of learning, were subsequeutiy termed Hunanists.
“The ngid Humanists maintained that the Greek and Latin authors are the only source of sound learning, whether in philosophy or rhetoric, in poetry or bistory, in medicine or law, and even in the elemento of religion; all has come to us from Greece and Rome. The learning of the Greek and Latin languager is the only foundation of a thorough education ;' the knowledge of the grammar ought to precede all other knowledge;' and philologists are the only thoroughly learned men.'
“ The Humanists maintained the entire sway of the learned world antil about the middle of the last century, when the school of the Philanthropists arose Disgusted with the extravagant manner in which the ancient languages were extojled, they were led to examide into the foundations of their pretensions. Whilo they yielded the palm to the ancients in all that relates to matter of taste and beauty, they maintained that this superority arose from the fact, that the ancienta derived their view directly from the inspection of nature and the corervation of man, instead of occupying themselves, as we do, with the mere pictures of them drawn by others;--they pointed to the obvious truth, that the world is older and vastly more experienced than it was two thousand yean ago; that in regard to all that relates to hunian knowledge, the present gederation are really the ancients. They believed that much time was lost by the indiscriminate and exclusive use of the classics as the foundation of education, which ought to be spent in acquisition of practical knowledge; and that by this tedious and laborious task, without any perceptible advantage to the pupil, they were often disgusted with every species of intellectual effort. They also pointed out the moral corruption which arises from puny of the examples and sentiments of the ancients, and especially disapproved that discipline of compulsinu and violence, by which children have been forced to this ungrateful employment. They urged the importance of leading by the attraction of kuowledge itself, rather than by force. They paid much attention to the development of the bodily constitution and power, and profewed to aim at forming men, and not mere scholars
“But, with the ordinary weakness of buman nature, in avoiding one extreme, they ran into the opposite. They forgot the valuable influence of these studies, properly regulated, upou the faculties and habits of the mind.
“ Notwithstanding their error, the Philanthropista unquestionably exerted much induence on the improve ment of education. The extravagant views of the Humanista were considerably modified; and although many still retain the exclusive maxims of their predecessors, many admil, as stated in the Gernan Cro. versations Lexicon, that 'all should be enabraced in education which can promote the formation of the man, and prepare him for the eternal destiny of hus spirit.' The Philanthropists also prepared the way for their successors of the School of Pestalozzi. This remarkable man adopted many of the opinions of his predecessors of the Philauthropic school, especially those which related to the development of the bodily powers, and the methods of discipline, and religious instruction He perceived however, tbat, in assuming practical utility as the exclusiva test of the value of particular objects of instruction, they had too much neglected the developent of the mind itself. In seeking to avoid this error, however, he did not entirely escape the other extreme. He assumed, as a fundamental principle, that a certain development of mind was necessary for every rank and every occupation. The means of this development be supposed himself to have found, so far the intellectual faculties were concerned, in the donents of form and number, which are combined in the science of Mathemais, in Language, and in Natural Bustory. The Malhematics appear to have assumed a preponderance in practice, which was unfavorable to the regular and har. monious cultivation of other powers The senses and the bodily power he endeavored to develop, in accordance with the views of the Philanthropic school, by the careful examination of the various objects of nature and art, which surround the pupil, by means of music, and by gymnastic exercises, alternated or combined with labor. Pestalozzi himself was remarkably the creature of powerful inpulses, which were Usually of the most mild and benevolent kind, and preserved a child-like character in this respect, even to old age. It was probably this temperament which led him to estimate at a low rate the importance of positive religious truth in the education i children, and to maintaio that the mere habit of faith and love, if cultivated towards earthly parents and benefactors, would of course be transferred to our heavenly Father, whenever his character should be exhibited to the mind of the child. The fundamental error of this view was established by the unhappy experienco of his own institution; and his own erample afforded the most striking evidence that the noblest impalses, not directed by established principles, may lead to imprudence and nun, and thus defeat their own ends. This principle, combined with the want of tact in reference to the affain of couimon life, materially impaired his powers of usefulness as a practical instructor of youth. The rapid progress of his ideas rarely allowed bim to execute his owo plans; and, according to his owo system, too much time was employed in the profound development of principles to admit of much attention to their practical application. But, as one of his admiren observed, he seemed destined to educate ideas and not children. He combated, with unshrinking boldness, and untiring perseverance, through a long life, both by his example and by his numerous publications, the prejudices and abuses of the age, in reference education. He attacked, with great vigor and no small degree of success, that favorite maxim of bigotry and tyranuy, that obedience and devotion are the legitimate offspring of ignoranco. He denounced that degrading system which consider it epough to enable man to procure a subsistence for himself and his off spring--and in this manne: to merely place him on a level with the beast of the forest; and which deems every thing iost whome value cannot be estimated in money. He arged upon the consciences of parents and of rulers, with an energy approaching that of the ancient prophets, the solemn duties which Divine Providence had imposed upon them, in committing to their charge the present and future destinies of their fellow beings. In this way he produced an impu'se, which pervaded the continent of Europe, and which, by means of bis popular and theoretical
works, reached the cottages of the poor and palaces of the great. "His istitution at Yverdup was crowdel with men of every tiation, not merely those who were led by the same benevolence which inspired him, but by the agents of kings, and noblemen, and public institutions, who came to make themselves acquajuted with bio principles, in order to become fellow-laborers in his plads of bebevolence.
* As an example of this, it may be mentioned that, on one of those occasions (frequently occurring) ca which he was reduced to extremity for want of the means of supplying his large family, he borrowed $400 from a frieud for this purpose. In going bone, he met a peasant wringing his hands in despair for the loss of his cow. Pestalozzi put the entire lag of niobey into his hands, aud rav od to escape his books
"It is to these companions of his labors, most of whom resided in Germany or Switzerland, that we one the formation of another school, which has been styled the Productive School, and which now predominates in Germany and Switzerland. It might, perhaps with equal propriety, be termed the Eclectic School, for it aims at embodying all the valuable principles of previous systems, without adhering slavishly to the dictates of any master, or the views of any party. It rejects alike the idolatrous homage to the classics, which was paid by the Humanists the unreasonable prejudices of the Philanthropists against classical and merely literary pursuits
and the undue predilection for the mere expansion of mind, to the neglect of positive koowledge and practical application, which characterized too many of the Pestalozzian school.
“The leading principle of this system, is that which ita panic indicates that the child should be regarded not as a mere recipient of the ideas of others, but as an agent capable of collecting, and originating, and producing most of ibe ideas which are necessary for its education, when presented with the objects or the facts from which they onay be derived. While, on the one hand, they are careful not to reduce the pupil to a mere machine, to be moved by the will of his instructor in an assigned direction, or a mass of passive matter, to be formed by bim according to his own favorite model, they are
equally careful to avoid the extreme, into which sme of the preceding school have falien, of leaving him to wander indefinitely in a wrong direction in search of truth, in order to secure tr um the merit of discovery. They consider a course of education as divided into two party-the period of woelopment and the period of acquisition. In the first period, which they cousider as particularly devoted to developing true faculties and forming the habits
of the mind, in order to prepare i as an irLitrument for future operations, they employ the inductive process chiefly. Time is not here of so much importance as the babit of investigation and effort, which can only be acquired by meeting and overcoming difficulties. This period, which must be made longer or shorter according to the character of the pupil, or the necessity that his clrcunstauces in life may impose, is succeeded by the period of acquisition, in which the mind is more especially called upon to exercise the poroes which have been previously developed and cultivated, in the acquisition of such positirse knowledge as muy prepare the individual for life and action. The inductive process is still employed as much as possi. ble, not only because it has become, for many cases, the shortest and most agreeable, but because it is important to maintain the habits it bas produced, and invigorate the faculties it has served to develop.
But still it is far less emploved than previously, and the pupil is never suffered to waste his time in attempting to create a science for himself, and thus deprived of the benefit of the experience of sages and centuries Op the cortrary, they deem his mind capable of being clevated even more rapidly by following the processes of patient investigation, by which the most exalted minds have arrived at results that astonish and delight him, and of thus learning to imitate strides, which seem to him like those of A giant, and to cultivate those habits of untiring attention, which the greatest philosophers have declared to be the principal source of that telescopic glance, that almost merring power of discrimination, wbich seems to others to bearly miraculous.
"Such is the Productive System, by which the powen of toe pravi au culed alo complete exercise by requiring him to attempt a task unaided, and then assisting him in correcting his own errors, or returning from his own wanderings, before he is discouraged by the waste of time and the fruitlessness of his effort. They distinguish carefully between knowledge and the means of obtaining it. To cultivate the senses, and present the objects which they are capable of examining, is to open to the child the sources of knowledge to place before him a book wbich is ever open, and in whicb be may every moment read. This they maintain, is the first and most obvious part of education, according to the dictates of common sense. It is one in which nothing but truth is presented to him, and which, by calling his power into constant exerciso, ensures their improvement, and cultivales a spirit of investigation."
The preceding ertracts are taken from Art. 1. Vol. I. No. VI. of the American Journal of Education, New Series. The author avails himsell of this opportunity to express his obligations to the conductors of this valuable periodical. A constant perusal of its pages has afforded him many valuablo ideas ou de subject of education, and he cheerfully acknowledges material assistance derived from it in the prepa. ration of the “ Productive System of English Grammar," which . Dow respectfully submitted to the candid examination of the public.
700,000 ECLECTIC SCHOUL BOOKS.
Tak pablishers of the Eclectic Series of School Books are now supplied with large quantities of the various Books comprised in the series; and are prepared to supply orders for them to any extent. The following are the works embraced in this series
RAV'S LITPLE ARITHMETIC
The above works have been prepared by a few untiring laborers in the cause of Education (President M'Guffey and others,) for the purpose of furnishing the South and West with a completo, uniform, and improoed set of school books, commencing with the alphabet; and which might obviate the constant difficulties and perplexities occasioned by the loo frequent changes in School Books. The effort has been successful. The fact that SEVEN HUNDRED THOUSAND of the Eclectic Bchool Books have been disposed of during the short time they have been before the public, is the best evidence of their superior excellency. They have gone into GENERAL USE, and have become the Standard School Books of the WEST and Soulb. Published and sold is any quantities by TRUMAN & SMITH,