## Conjugated conducting polymers |

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Page 150

3.2.2 Conduction in Localized States Carriers in localized states can move into

adjacent empty states by thermally assisted tunnelling, called

determined ...

3.2.2 Conduction in Localized States Carriers in localized states can move into

adjacent empty states by thermally assisted tunnelling, called

**hopping**. The**hopping**probability depends on the mutual overlap of the wavefunctions,determined ...

Page 151

A similar formula can be derived from a percolation treatment of the

conductivity [3.36], but only asymptotically in the low-temperature limit, as long as

T0/T > 10000. In amorphous inorganic materials, typical values of T0, as derived

...

A similar formula can be derived from a percolation treatment of the

**hopping**conductivity [3.36], but only asymptotically in the low-temperature limit, as long as

T0/T > 10000. In amorphous inorganic materials, typical values of T0, as derived

...

Page 159

This is an argument in favour of Kivelson's theory and against variable-range

such not intentionally doped samples the density of neutral solitons is relatively

high ...

This is an argument in favour of Kivelson's theory and against variable-range

**hopping**. The samples were estimated to have a doping level of y = 3 • 10" 5. Insuch not intentionally doped samples the density of neutral solitons is relatively

high ...

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

An Overview of the Theory of Conjugated Polymers | 7 |

References | 114 |

Copyright | |

5 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

A.J. Heeger atoms Baeriswyl band band gap behaviour bipolarons bond alternation bond lengths calculations CH)x chain charged solitons Chem chemical shift coefficient conducting polymers configuration conjugated polymers correlation Coulomb interactions coupling Cryst D.K. Campbell decreases defects dependence dimerization discussed dopant dopant concentration doping doping levels e-e interactions effects electron spin electron-electron interactions electron-phonon ENDOR energy excitations exciton experimental Fermi finite polyenes frequency function Hamiltonian Hartree-Fock Heeger Hiickel hopping Hubbard model hyperfine interactions inter-chain kink lattice Lett linewidth magnetic metallic molecular neutral solitons nonlinear nonlinear optical nuclear observed obtained one-dimensional optical absorption optical gap parameter peak Peierls Peierls-Hubbard model phonon Phys polarons polyacetylene polyenes polypyrrole polythiophene properties proton quantum quasi-particles Raman relaxation resonance Sect shown in Fig soliton spectra spectrum spin density SSH model structure symmetry Synth temperature theoretical theory trans trans-(CH)x transition triplet valence bond values Vardeny