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THE

PRINCIPLES

OF

ENGLISH GRAMMAR,

COMPRISING

THE SUBSTANCE OF ALL THE MOST APPROVED ENGLISH GRAMMAR

EXTANT, BRIEFLY DEFINED AND CLEARLY ARRANGEDA

WITH COPIOUS EXERCISES.

BY WILLIAM LENNIE,

LATE TEACHER OF ENGLISH AND GEOGRAPIIY, EDINBURGII, AUTHOR OF

THE CHILD'S A, B, C," "LADDER TO THE BIBLE,” ETC.

I New Edition.

CRITICALLY REVISED AND AMENDED FOR USE OF SCHOOLS, AND ENLARGED

BY A FULL EXPLANATION OF THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

LONDON:
ROUTLEDGE, WARNE, AND ROUTLEDGE,

FARRINGDON STREET.

1863.

LONDON:

WOODFALL AND KINDER, PRINTERS,

ANGEL COURT, SKINNER STREET.

It is probable that the original design and principal motive of every teacher, in publishing a School-book, is the improvement of his own pupils. Such, at least, is the immediate object of the present compilation, which, for brevity of expression, neatness of arrangement, and comprehensiveness of plan, is, perhaps, superior to any other book of the kind.

My chief end has been, to explain the general Principles of Grammar, as clearly and intelligibly as possible. In the definitions, therefore, easiness and perspicuity have been sometimes preferred to logical exactness.'

Orthography is mentioned rather for the sake of order, than from a conviction of its utility; for, in my opinion, to occupy thirty or forty pages of a grammar in defining the sounds of the alphabet is quite supererogatory.

On Etymology I have left much to be remarked by the teacher, in the time of teaching. My reason for doing this is, that children, when by themselves, labour more to have the words in their books imprinted on their memories, than to have the meaning fixed on their minds; but, on the contrary, when the teacher addresses them vivâ voce, they naturally strive rather to comprehend his meaning, than to remember his exact expressions. In pursuance of this idea, the first part of this little volume has been thrown into a form, more resembling Heads of Lectures on Grammar, than a complete elucidation of the subject. That the teacher, however, may not be always under the necessity of having recourse to his memory to supply the deficiencies, the most remarkable Observations have been subjoined at the bottom of the page, to which the pupils themselves may occasionally be referred.

The desire of being concise has frequently induced me to use very elliptical expressions ; but I trust they are all sufficiently perspicuous.

The Questions on Etymology will speak for themselves; they unite the advantages of both the usual methods, viz., that of plain narration, and that of question and answer, without the inconvenience of either.

Syntax is commonly divided into two parts, Concord and Government; and the rules respecting the former, grammarians, in general, have placed before those which relate to the latter. I have not. however, attended to this division, because I deem it of little importance; but have placed those rules first which are either more easily understood, or which more frequently occur. In arranging a number of rules, it is difficult to please every reader. I have frequently been unable to satisfy myself; and therefore cannot expect that the arrangement which I have at last adopted will give universal satisfaction. Whatever order be preferred, the one rule must necessarily precede the other; and since they are all to be learned, it signifies but little whether the rules of concord precede those of government, or whether they be mixed, provided no anticipations be made which may embarrass the learner.

For Exercises on Syntax I have selected the shortest sentences I could find, and printed the lines closely together, with the rules at the bottom in a small type. Hence, though this book seerns to contain but few Exercises on bad grammar, it really contains so many that a separate Volume of Exercises is quite unnecessary.

On Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody, there is scarcely a Rule or Observation in the largest grammar in print that is not to be found in this ; besides, the Rules and Definitions, in general, are so very short and pointed that, compared with those in some other grammars, they may be said to be hit off rather than made.

** Since the preceding pages were written many changes and improvements have been made in scholastic tuition. It has therefore been the object of the Editor to introduce guch amendments and additions, especially in the general arrangement and exercises,* in the section on Orthography, and in the part devoted to Syntax, which has been completed by a full exposition of the Analysis of Sentences, as were in accordance with the progressive spirit of the age; and he has only to express a hope that they will be duly appreciated, not only by the teachers of youth, but by all who take an interest in th cultivation and general improvement of the English language.

P. A. NUTTALL.

* See the annexed summary of contents, which presents a synoptical view of the general arrangement, and of the various divisions and subdivisions of grammar in general.

SHOWING THE VARIOUS DIVISIONS AND SUBDIVISIONS OF

GRAMMAR; WITH REFERENCES TO EACH PAGE.

PAGE

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PAGE
Passive Verbs

34
Conjugation of the Pas-

sive Verb “TO BE
LOVED"

35
Irregular Verbs

39
Alphabetical List of

Irregular Verbs. 40
Of Adverbs

45
Of Prepositions

47
Of Conjunctions

49
Of Interjections

50
On PARSING

51

Lessons and Exercises

in Parsing

53

How to distinguish the

different Parts of
Speech

56
How to discover the Nomi-

native or Objective 57

19

Moods of Verbs 20

Of the Tenses

21

Auxiliary Verbs “WILL

and SHALL"

22

Conjugation of Verbs 23

The Auxiliary Verb

HAVE

23

The Auxiliary & Neuter

Verb “To Ba" 26

Conjugation of Regular

Verbs.

30

Conjugation of the Ac-

tive Verb “To LOVE” 30

Promiscuous Exercises 33

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