The distribution and classification of life on earth has long been of interest to biological theorists, as well as to travellers and explorers. Cladistic biogeography is the study of the historical and evolutionary relationships between species, based on their particular distribution patterns across the earth. Analysis of the distributions of species in different areas of the world can tell us how those species and areas are related, what regions or larger groups of areas exist, and what their origins might be. The first edition of Cladistic Biogeography was published in 1986. It was a concise exposition of the history, methods, applications of, and prospects for cladistic biogeography. Well reviewed, and widely used in teaching, Cladistic Biogeography is still in demand, despite having been out of print for some time. This new edition draws on a wide range of examples, both plant and animal, from marine, terrestrial, and freshwater habitats. It has been updated throughout, with the chapters being rewritten and expanded to incorporate the latest research findings and theoretical and methodological advances in this dynamic field.
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3 The real world
3211 COMPONENT 20
331 Areas of hybrid origin
23 Cladistics and Biogeography
231 The progression rule
232 Vicariance biogeographyCroizats 1952 1958 1964 methods and Rosens 1976 method
233 Cladistic biogeographythe method of Platnick and Nelson 1978
2331 Poeciliid fish in Middle AmericaRosens example 1978 1979
2332 Ancestral species mapsWileys method 1980 1981
lizards frogs and birds
2334 Missing areas
2336 Assumption 1
2338 Assumption 0 and Brooks parsimony analysis
2339 Platnicks 1981 analysis of Rosens poeciliid data Pages COMPONENT program Page 1989ac 1993a
23310 Comparing cladograms and applying parsimony Page 1989b
23311 Reconciling trees and the fit analysis of Page 1993ab
23312 Threeitem statements Nelson and Ladiges 1991ad Nelson and Platnick 1991
23313 Subtree analysis paralogy and redundancy in area cladograms the TASS program of Nelson and Ladiges v 14 15 1994 v 20 1995
332 Patterns of different ages
34 Geology and the cladistic biogeographer
342 Cladograms of areas
A new view of the world
42 Tropical versus antitropical
43 Pangaea Pacifica or expanding earth?
44 Historical biogeography of the southern end of the world
442 Two or more South Americas
4421 Patterns of taxa
4422 Patterns of areas
4423 Geology or age?
443 A composite New Zealand
45 A New View of the world
451 Pacifica and antitropical distributions
geology or age?
ancestral antitropical distributions apomorphic area cladograms area relationships areas of endemism assumption austral zone Australia biogeographic patterns biogeographic studies biological biota bipolar boreal zone Brundin centre of origin characters chironomid cladistic biogeography clado cladograms of taxa closely related consensus tree continental continents Craw Cretaceous Croizat derived disjunct dispersal distribution patterns earth history eastern example explanation fish fossil frogs genera genus geographic geologists groups of organisms Guinea Hennig Heterandria historical biogeography Humphries 1981 hypotheses land masses lizards Lophius method midges monophyletic monophyletic group Nelson and Ladiges Nelson and Platnick nodes North America North American taxa North Atlantic Nothofagus ocean oculata Osmorhiza Pacific Pacifica panbiogeography Pangaea pantropical paraphyletic parsimony Patterson 1981a phylogenetic plants and animals plate tectonics Platnick regions Rosen South southern beeches southern hemisphere species symplesiomorphy synapomorphies Taraxacum magellanicum taxon terranes theory three-item statements tion tracks tropical vicariance events Weerdt western North America widespread taxa Xiphophorus Zealand