Low-Dielectric Constant Materials II:
H. Treichel, A. C. Jones, A. Lagendijk, K. Uram
Materials Research Society, Aug 19, 1997 - Technology & Engineering - 203 pages
Low-dielectric constant materials are needed to improve the performance and speed of future integrated circuits. In fact, the diversity of contributors to this book is testimony to the global significance of the topic to the future of semiconductor manufacturing. Presentations include those by semiconductor equipment manufacturers and chemical source suppliers, academia from six countries, four government laboratories and five major device manufacturers. Approaches to designing and implementing reduction in dielectric constant for intermetal dielectric materials are featured and range from the evolution of silicon dioxide to fluorinated silicate glass, to the use of inorganic/organic polymers and spin-on-material, to fluorinated diamond-like carbon and nanoporous silica. The book also addresses the practical aspects of the use of low-dielectric constant materials such as chemical mechanical polishing of these materials and optimization of wiring delays in devices utilizing low-k material.
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a-C:F film adhesion alloy ambient annealing applications as-deposited atoms BEOL capacitance chemical concentration crosslinking CTAC/TEOS cure temperature cured films dangling bonds decrease density deposition rate desorption dielectric constant DLC films electron ellipsometry etch rate evaporation F content film thickness films deposited fluorine fluorocarbon fluoropolymers frequency FSG films FTIR glass transition temperature groups HDPCVD hydrogen imidization increasing indicates integrated interface ISBN low dielectric constant low-k Materials Research Society measured mechanical metal moisture absorption monomers Multilevel Interconnection nanoporous nanoporous silica oxazole oxide Parylene parylene AF-4 peak PECVD PFCB Phys planarization plasma polyimide polyimide film polymerization polymers porosity precursor Proc properties PTFE ratio reaction refractive index resistance rf power sample semiconductor shows Si-F Si-O-Si SiDLC SiF4 silicon SiO2 SiOF films solvent spectra spectroscopy spin cast spin-coating stress structure substrate surface Symp thermal stability thin films ULSI vapor deposition wafer xerogel