## Automatic Bird Song Recognition |

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Page 14

If the waveform is a single sine wave, this feature has value no greater than one,

by Appendix 2

fricatives have values above one. Sounds encountered in this study that were ...

If the waveform is a single sine wave, this feature has value no greater than one,

by Appendix 2

**Theorem**2. White noise, such as in birds calls or human-producedfricatives have values above one. Sounds encountered in this study that were ...

Page 30

... the case and is known as the Nyquist

the sampling frequency is the highest frequency sine wave that can be recorded

by a sampling process without being potentially mistaken for a sine wave of ...

... the case and is known as the Nyquist

**theorem**([RS], p. 24). A sine wave of halfthe sampling frequency is the highest frequency sine wave that can be recorded

by a sampling process without being potentially mistaken for a sine wave of ...

Page 51

APPENDIX 2: JUSTIFICATION OF THE USE OF ZERO CROSSINGS The two

distinguishing bird species is preserved by the reduction to zero-crossing and ...

APPENDIX 2: JUSTIFICATION OF THE USE OF ZERO CROSSINGS The two

**theorems**in this appendix show that in idealized cases, important information fordistinguishing bird species is preserved by the reduction to zero-crossing and ...

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### Common terms and phrases

60 Figure acoustic algorithm analysis average amplitude avian bird song bird species California Quail calls CDFE cepstral cepstral peak Cepstrum chirp feature vectors chirp list Clark's Nutcracker comparison Computer congruent corresponding described in Section detected difference dynamic time warping entire song excursion cycle Figure 11b formula Frequency Frequency Duration glottal Greenewalt harmonics Hence High Low High House Finch human speech recognition I I I individual inter-note distances internal tympaniform membranes Itakura distance length Linear Prediction Low High Low magnitude Markov models noise Olive-sided Flycatcher phase phonemes present point range recognition system recordings represented ripples sample points sampling rate Scrub Jay segment of speech sequence of labels signal similar sine wave sonagrams song feature Song Sparrow sound spectrum squawk Steller's Jay subsource Swainson's Thrush syntactic Theorem thesis trachea Typical upward zero crossing vibration vocal tract Warbling Vireo waveform Western Meadowlark whistled White-crowned Sparrow