## Automatic Bird Song Recognition |

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Page 13

Since these tend to be low frequency sources, and since the false chirps usually

have durations near the minimum ... where Z is the number of upward zero

crossings of the signal, F is the

the ...

Since these tend to be low frequency sources, and since the false chirps usually

have durations near the minimum ... where Z is the number of upward zero

crossings of the signal, F is the

**sampling rate**, and N is the number of points inthe ...

Page 30

where F is the

modulus" ([PL), p. 4) ) of X(m) represents the strength of the corresponding

complex wave, and X(m)'s phase (IPL), p.4) represents its offset in time.

Assuming that the ...

where F is the

**sampling frequency**. The magnitude (or "absolute value" or "modulus" ([PL), p. 4) ) of X(m) represents the strength of the corresponding

complex wave, and X(m)'s phase (IPL), p.4) represents its offset in time.

Assuming that the ...

Page 45

Microphone handling noises are of such a low frequency as to be easily

distinguished from the bird songs, human voices ... The spectral studies used a

frequency ...

Microphone handling noises are of such a low frequency as to be easily

distinguished from the bird songs, human voices ... The spectral studies used a

**sampling rate**of 32,766 samples per second, which captures nearly all of thefrequency ...

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60 Figure acoustic algorithm analysis average amplitude avian bird song bird species California Quail calls CDFE cepstral cepstral peak Cepstrum chirp feature vectors chirp list Clark's Nutcracker comparison Computer congruent corresponding described in Section detected difference dynamic time warping entire song excursion cycle Figure 11b formula Frequency Frequency Duration glottal Greenewalt harmonics Hence High Low High House Finch human speech recognition I I I individual inter-note distances internal tympaniform membranes Itakura distance length Linear Prediction Low High Low magnitude Markov models noise Olive-sided Flycatcher phase phonemes present point range recognition system recordings represented ripples sample points sampling rate Scrub Jay segment of speech sequence of labels signal similar sine wave sonagrams song feature Song Sparrow sound spectrum squawk Steller's Jay subsource Swainson's Thrush syntactic Theorem thesis trachea Typical upward zero crossing vibration vocal tract Warbling Vireo waveform Western Meadowlark whistled White-crowned Sparrow