## Automatic Bird Song Recognition |

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where Z is the number of

rate, and N is the number of points in the signal. An

point i in the sample such that Si–1 < 0 and Si20. The number of upward zero ...

where Z is the number of

**upward zero crossings**of the signal, F is the samplingrate, and N is the number of points in the signal. An

**upward zero crossing**is apoint i in the sample such that Si–1 < 0 and Si20. The number of upward zero ...

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according to the number of zero crossings, so that each "fifth" contains (up to

integer round-offs) one fifth of the zero crossings of the chirp. Division ... The part

of a signal from one

cycle.

according to the number of zero crossings, so that each "fifth" contains (up to

integer round-offs) one fifth of the zero crossings of the chirp. Division ... The part

of a signal from one

**upward zero crossing**to the next is termed an excursioncycle.

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### Common terms and phrases

60 Figure acoustic algorithm analysis average amplitude avian bird song bird species California Quail calls CDFE cepstral cepstral peak Cepstrum chirp feature vectors chirp list Clark's Nutcracker comparison Computer congruent corresponding described in Section detected difference dynamic time warping entire song excursion cycle Figure 11b formula Frequency Frequency Duration glottal Greenewalt harmonics Hence High Low High House Finch human speech recognition I I I individual inter-note distances internal tympaniform membranes Itakura distance length Linear Prediction Low High Low magnitude Markov models noise Olive-sided Flycatcher phase phonemes present point range recognition system recordings represented ripples sample points sampling rate Scrub Jay segment of speech sequence of labels signal similar sine wave sonagrams song feature Song Sparrow sound spectrum squawk Steller's Jay subsource Swainson's Thrush syntactic Theorem thesis trachea Typical upward zero crossing vibration vocal tract Warbling Vireo waveform Western Meadowlark whistled White-crowned Sparrow