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THE FATE OF THE MOORISH CAVALIER.

ance,

THE DARING EXŁLOITS OF A MOORISH AND A CHRISTIAN and cimeters, and defying them to single combat, which CAVALIER.

they found themselves most unwillingly obliged to de“ When the Moorish knights beheld that all courteous cline. The “ Chronicle" then proceeds thus :challenges were unavailing, they sought various means to provoke the Christian warriors to the field. Sometimes a body of them, fleetly mounted, would gallop up to the “ While this grim and reluctant tranquillity prevailed skirts of the camp, and try who should hurl his lance far- along the Christian line, there rose a mingled shout and thest within the barriers ; leaving his name inscribed on sound of laughter near the gate of the city. A Moorish it, or a label affixed to it, containing some taunting defi- horseman, armed at all points, issued forth, followed by

These bravadoes caused great irritation; but still a rabble, who drew back as he approached the scene of the Spanish warriors were restrained by the prohibition danger. The Moor was more robust and brawny than of the king.

was common with his countrymen. His visor was closed; “ Among the Moorish cavaliers was one named Tarfe, he bore a large buckler and ponderous lance; his cimeter renowned for his great strength and daring spirit, but was of a Damascus blade, and his richly ornamented dagwhose courage partook of fierce audacity rather than chi- ger was wrought by an artificer of Fez. He was known valric heroism. In one of these sallies, when they were by his device to be Tarfe, the most insolent, yet valiant, skirting the Christian camp, this arrogant Moor outstrip of the Moslem warriors; the same who had hurled into ped his companions, overleaped the barriers, and, gallop- the royal camp his lance, inscribed to the queen. As he ing close to the royal quarters, launched his lance so far rode slowly along, in front of the army, his very steed, within, that it remained quivering in the earth, close by prancing with fiery eye and distended nostril, seemed to the pavilions of the sovereigns. The royal guards rush- breathe defiance to the Christians. But what were the ed forth in pursuit; but the Moorish horsemen were al- feelings of the Spanish cavaliers, when they beheld, tied ready beyond the camp, and scouring in a cloud of dust to the tail of his steed, and dragged in the dust, the very for the city. Upon wresting the lance from the earth, a inscription, Ave Maria, which Fernando Perez del Pullabel was found upon it, importing, that it was intended gar had affixed to the door of the mosque ! A burst of for the queen.

horror and indignation broke forth from the army. Fer“ Nothing could equal the indignation of the Christian nando del Pulgar was not at hand to maintain his prewarriors at the insolence of the bravado, when they heard vious achievement, but one of his young companions in to whom the discourteous insult was offered. Fernando arms, Garcilasso de la Vega by name, putting spurs to Perez del Pulgar, surnamed “ he of the exploits,' was his horse, galloped to the hamlet of Zubia, threw himself present, and resolved not to be outbraved by this daring on his knees before the king, and besought permission to infidel. "Who will stand by me,' said he, in an enter- accept the defiance of this insolent infidel, and to revenge prise of desperate peril ?' The Christian cavaliers well the insult offered to our blessed Lady. The request was knew the hair-brained valour of Del Pulgar; yet not one too pious to be refused ; Garcilasso remounted his steed; hesitated to step forward. He chose fifteen companions, he closed his helmet, graced by four sable plumes ; grasp all men of powerful arm and dauntless heart. In the cd his buckler, of Flemish workmanship, and his lance, dead of the night he led them forth from the camp, and of matchless temper, and defied the haughty Moor in the approached the city cautiously, until he arrived at a post- midst of his career. A combat took place, in view of the ern gate, which opened upon the Darro, and was guard-two armies, and of the Castilian court. The Moor was ed by foot soldiers. The guards, little thinking of such powerful in wielding his weapons, and dexterous in an unwonted and partial attack, were for the most part managing his steed. He was of larger frame than Garasleep. The gate was forced, and a confused and chance- cilasso, and more completely armed; and the Christians medley skirmish ensued. Fernando del Pulgar stopped trembled for their champion. The shock of their ennot to take part in the affray. Putting spurs to his counter was dreadful; their lances were shivered, and horse, he galloped furiously through the streets, striking sent up splinters in the air. Garcilasso was thrown back fire out of the stones at every bound. Arrived at the in his saddle, and his horse made a wide career before he principal mosque, he sprang from his horse, and, kneel- could recover his position, gather up the reins, and return ing at the portal, took possession of the edifice as a Chris- to the conflict. They now encountered each other with tian chapel, dedicating it to the blessed Virgin. In tes- swords. The Moor circled round his opponent as a hawk timony of the ceremony, he took a tablet, which he had circles when about to make a swoop; his Arabian steed brought with him, on which was inscribed in large let- obeyed his rider with matchless quickness ; at every attack ters, • Ave Maria,' and nailed it to the door of the of the infidel, it seemed as if the Christian knight must mosque with his dagger. This done, he remounted his sink beneath his flashing cimeter. But if Garcilasso steed, and galloped back to the gate. The alarm had was inferior to him in power, he was superior in agility; been given; the city was in an uproar; soldiers were ga- many of his blows he parried, others he received on his thering from every direction. They were astonished at Flemish buckler, which was proof against the Damascus seeing a Christian warrior speeding from the interior of blade. The blood streamed from numerous vounds, re. the city. Fernando del Pulgar, overturning some, and ceived by either warrior. The Moor, seeing his anta cutting down others, rejoined his companions, who still gonist exhausted, availed himself of his superior force ; maintained possession of the gate, by dint of hard fight- and, grappling, endeavoured to wrest him from his sading, and they all made good their retreat to the camp. dle. They both fell to the earth; the Moor placed his The Moors were at a loss to conjecture the meaning of knee on the breast of his victim, and, brandishing his this wild and apparently fruitless assault; but great was dagger, aimed a blow at his throat. A cry of despair their exasperation, when, on the following day, they dis was uttered by the Christian warriors, when suddenly covered the trophy of hardihood and prowess, the Ave they beheld the Moor rolling lifeless in the dust! GarMaria, thus elevated in the very centre of the city. The cilasso had shortened his sword, and, as his adversary mosque, thus boldly sanctified by Fernando del Pulgar, raised his arm to strike, had pierced him to the heart. was eventually, after the capture of Granada, converted • It was a singular and miraculous victory,' says Fray. into a cathedral."-Vol. ii. pp. 327-30.

Antonio Agapida ; but the Christian knight was armed 'The matter did not end here. Shortly afterwards, by the sacred nature of his cause, and the holy Virgin Isabella rode out from the camp to take a nearer view of gave him

strength, like another David, to slay this giganthe town of Granada. She was attended by a retinue of tic champion of the Gentiles.'”– Vol. ii. pp. 335–38. knights, who had the strictest orders not to leave her side We have room for only one extract more. It describes, under any circumstances. Many Moorish horsemen in moving and eloquent terms, the departure of Boabdil, same galloping towards them, brandishing their lances the last Moorish King of Granada, together with his fa

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mily, from that splendid palace which his forefathers had built , and which stood in the midst of that princely city Trials and other Proceedings in Matters Criminal before

the High Court of Justiciary in Scotland ; Selected he was never again to revisit :

from the Records of that Court, and from Original Ma“ It was a night of doleful lamentings within the walls nuscripts preserved in the General Register House, Edinof the Alhambra, for the household of Boabdil were prepa- burgh. By Robert Pitcairn, W.S. Part I., from the ring to take a last farewell of that delightful abode. All the commencement of the reign of King James VI., to royal treasures, and the most precious effects of the Albam- July 22, 1590. Edinburgh: published by William bra, were hastily packed upon mules; the beautiful apart- Tait, and by John Stevenson. London: by Longman, ments were despoiled, with tears and wailings, by their own Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, and by John Cochinhabitants. Before the dawn of day, a mournful cavalcade

1829. moved obscurely out of a postern gate of the Alhambra, and departed through one of the most retired quarters of the find pleasure in perusing the records of a criminal court.

There are two very different classes of readers who city. It was composed of the family of the unfortunate The mere lover of the interesting or the horrible, who Boabdil, whom he sent off thus privately that they might

runs over their contents as he would the Mysteries of not be exposed to the eyes of scoffers, or the exultation of Udolpho, looks merely to the tale, the truth or falsehood the enemy. The mother of Boabdil, the Sultana Ayxa la of which it is the object of the proceedings to elicit, and Horra, rode on in silence, with dejected yet dignified de his pleasure is derived from the shuddering interest all meanour; but his wife, Zorayma, and all the females of his feel in the story of fierce passion and crime, heightened household, gave way to loud lamentations, as they gave a occasionally, and rendered more piquant, by the naive last look to their favourite abode, now a mass of gloomy manner in which a witness may deliver his evidence. towers behind them. They were attended by the ancient The student of man and society, however, finds in such domestics of the household, and by a small guard of veteran pages a wide field for deep reflection. The very forms Moors, loyally attached to the fallen monarch, and who of judicial procedure—the mere abstract canvassing of would have sold their lives dearly in defence of his family. points of law, interest him ; for, in following them out The city was yet buried in sleep, as they passed through its through a lapse of years, he sees how the principles of silent streets. The guards at the gate shed tears as they justice, at first vaguely conceived, become more and more opened it for their departure. They tarried not, but pro- distinctly apprehended; how gradually a comprehensive ceeded along the banks of the Xenil, on the road that leads to and consistent system emerges out of a few apparently the Alpuxarias, until they arrived at a hamlet, at some dis- unconnected rules; and how long practice gives fitness tance from the city, where they halted, and waited until and efficiency to the institutions for enforcing law. In they should be joined by King Boabdil.

the deeds which are submitted to the investigation of the “ Having rejoined his family, Boabdil set forward with court, in the bearing of the perpetrators, nay, in the mana heavy heart for his allotted residence, in the valley of ner in which the witnesses, subject to bias and misapprePorchena. At two leagues distance, the cavalcade, wind- hension, vary and perplex the tale, he learns to know the ing into the skirts of the Alpuxarias, ascended an emi- human heart in all its waywardness. It is this that nence commanding the last view of Granada. As they makes the law of a nation, and particularly that part of arrived at this spot, the Moors paused involuntarily, to its law which takes cognizance of crime, one of the most take a farewell gaze at their beloved city, which a few instructive chapters in its history. steps more would shut from their sight for ever. Never The present number of the work, the name of which had it appeared so lovely in their eyes. The sunshine, so

we have transcribed above, will be found possessed of combright in that transparent climate, lighted up each tower paratively few attractions for the former class of readers. and minaret, and rested gloriously upon the crowning It is more likely to be rightly appreciated by the latter, battlements of the Alhambra ; while the vega spread its who, devoted to historical research, and the study of human enamelled bosom of verdure below, glistening with the nature, know how to value every piece of additional ausilver windings of the Xenil. The Moorish cavaliers thentic information, completing with it the knowledge of gazed with a silent agony of tenderness and grief upon

some point which they had already acquired, or storing it that delicious abode, the scene of their loves and pleasures. up, broken and fragmentary as it is, in the hope, at some While they yet looked, a light cloud of smoke burst forth future period, to be able to reunite it to the mass from from the citadel ; and presently a peal of artillery, faintly which it has been shivered. Even to this class, the heard, told that the city was taken possession of, and the work may possibly not yet appear so valuable as it will throne of the Moslem kings was lost forever. The heart hereafter prove, when eked out by the selections from the of Boabdil, softened by misfortunes, and overcharged with earlier part of the records, which we are told, in the Progrief, could no longer contain itself, Allah achbar! spectus, are to follow. God is great !' said he ; but the words of resignation died

Part I. contains the proceedings before the Court of upon his lips, and he burst into a flood of tears.”_ Vol. Justiciary in Scotland, during the stormy period which ii. p. 372.

intervened between the accession of James VI. to the

Scottish throne, and his return from Denmark with his This hill, from which Boabdil looked back, for the last Queen in 1590. We must confess that we have not retime, on fair Granada, is still known in Spain by the ceived so much information respecting the principles of law poetical name of El ultimo suspiro del Moro, or “ the last which dictated the decisions of the Court, or respecting sigh of the Moor.”

the forms which it observed, as we had anticipated. We To those who love to dwell on all that is brilliant and

are not quite certain whether the Editor be altogether chivalrous, and to whom the glories of the old days pre- free of blame for this. It is true, as he tells us in the sent a theme for rich and splendid thought,—to those preface, that the “ Books of Adjournal” must have been who love to study the romance of real life, and to forget very carelessly kept during the period which it emtheir own misfortunes in the far more startling reverses braces ; that the proceedings are often recorded “ in a with which the men of forgotten generations were fami

very brief and unsatisfactory manner ;” and that, in liarized,--to those who love to see the tedious details of many instances, the minute books alone have been prehistory woven into a narrative, which, in many respects, served. It is likewise true, that there is strong ground rivals in interest the most cunningly devised fable, we of suspicion, that in some instances portions of the Reheartily recommend Washington Irving's “ Chronicle of cord have been suppressed by one or other of the preyailthe Conquest of Granada.”

ing factions. At the same time he confesses, that along with the minute books, “ the dittays, evidence of witnesses, and other productions," have been preserved. It

might have been difficult, even with all these "appliances frequency and aggravation, shrewd guesses may be made and means to boot,” to have got up such a detailed state at the progress of a nation in population and in wealth,ment of some of the cases on record, as would have shown, in luxury, refinement, and knowledge, and in the consewith some degree of clearness, the form of procedure ob- quent more marked and felt inequality of rank. served by our Justiciary at that period; but still it was pos The picture presented to our view, is such as the presible; and, for such an attempt, it is natural to suppose that vious history of Scotland would have led us to expect. Mr Pitcairn's habits, as a regular bred lawyer, would | The long and frequent minorities of its kings,—the conhave been of advantage to him. No attempt of this kind, centration of wealth and power in the hands of a not very however, is made : and this we are inclined to regard as numerous nobility,—the close union of these few into a neglect not very pardonable in the editor of a work of clans, by means of frequent intermarriages, had been sucsuch national importance. We have not, after two care- cessful in keeping the executive too weak to organize and ful perusals of the book, been able to ascertain from Mr quiet the country. Literature and science had for some Pitcairn's selections, at what stage of the proceedings, time found their way into the nation ; but they were as or in what manner, the witnesses were examined, or even yet only struggling for a firm footing, even among the whether it were thought necessary to examine them at wealthier and more easy classes. A few bright lights all. We could have wished more clear information on this there were, but the mass of the nation remained as yet particular, for, from what appears, we are inclined to sus- dark-neither softened nor warmed by their ray. Turpect that the officers of the crown were at that time in bulence and rudeness, but, to counterbalance them, a want the practice of receiving the information, upon which of the more polished vices, were the characteristics of sothey proceeded, on oath; and that if the “ dittay” bore ciety. Among the people had been kindled the zeal of that the communications were so made, or, if the king's an ascetic and intolerant system of religion. The deep advocate swore to the truth of the facts therein stated, devotion which it recommends as the motive of every acthe assize required no further evidence. The only infor- tion, the rigid correctness of life which it enjoins, were mation we obtain on this point is :-first, in the case of destined, at a later period, to form a peasantry of high “Wiliam Huchesoun, and his spous,” (p. 43,) where we and severe moral worth ; but, at that time, they seem but find the woman's prelocutor calling upon the King's advo to have exaggerated the unquiet and harsh features of the cate to swear to the truth of one of his assertions ;-in the Scottish character. case of Grahame of Fyntrie, (p. 74,) where the “preloqui. In accordance with this sketch, we find, in the book tor" for the panel produced, after the “ dittay” was read, now before us, a court of justice, timid and dilatory in its a letter from one of the pursuers, declaring“ that he was proceedings; interrupted now by the non-appearance of onlie moueit be malice of utheris personnis to persew the the culprit, now by a deficiency in the number of those same;" wbich does not seem to have been attended to;-and who ought to have taken a part in its deliberations, and not lastly, in the case of Johnne Mayne, (p. 82,) where the unfrequently by the interference of the King. Most of “testimoniallis and writtis" produced both for and against the offences, we have already said, originated in the dis“the pennall” are inserted at full length, but without any turbed political state of the country. We bave frequentnotice how or when they were laid before the assize. ly instances of men called on to underly the penalties of The only other ground we have to go upon, is the gene- law for absenting themselves from the King's army—from ral form of recording the verdict; from which it would the raids, as they were then called. The Court of Justiseem, that the assize were in the habit of retiring imme- ciary seems not unfrequently to have been used by podiately after the reading of the libel, and the conclusion litical parties as a means of wreaking their malice upon of the pleadings to the relevancy, taking with them the each other, after the civil power had wrested their wea"takinnis and depositioneis produceit,” and making up pons from their hands. In the numerous cases of their minds among themselves. This, joined to the pos “ slauchter,” when we find a number of men put to the sibility (vide case of Megot and Dobye, pp. 4 and 7) that bar for a murder, we may be almost sure that, in the months inight elapse between the commencement and ter- course of a page or two at furthest, we are to find the kin mination of a case, during the whole of which period the of the murdered man arraigned for killing a friend of the jurors were mixing in society as usual, left great room first accused. Comparatively few of these cases of slaughfor undue bias and misrepresentation. For the sake of ter and oppression seem to have had their origin in prihaving some elucidation of this point, as well as for the vate brawls, and these few are confined, in a great meagreat skill and subtlety shown in the drawing of some of sure, to the Highlands and Borders, which, from very the indictments and pleadings on the relevancy, we could different causes, seem to have been equally behind the have wished a greater degree of fulness in the selections; | rest of the country in civilisation. Of treason, we have and we hope to find this wish gratified in future num- ample store in these pages. The murder of Darnley, and bers.

of the two regents, Murray and Lennox; the execuA good number of our readers will, in all probability, tion of Morton and the Raid of Ruthven, occupy a goodly give us small thanks for dwelling so long on this subject. portion of them, and some interesting and authentic, if We can only say, in our defence, that it seemed import- not exactly new information, on these points, is given. ant; and we now turn to that view of the work in which The book bears testimony, in like manner, to the zeal all take an interest—the picture it gives us of the age. with which priests and their favourers were hunted out.

From what we have said of the nature and form of the With regard to private criminality, we are sorry to say Records, the reader will easily conceive that we hear in that three very improper connexions with married wothem, as it were, but the echo of the waves of society men have a prominent place; and that the money and which were at that time lashed into such noise and com- plenishing of the jolly dames seem in all the three to motion. We see the facts through the cold medium of have been the chief object of the gallant, as their waste abbreviated legal forms; and, moreover, the selection of seems to be the chief topic of the husband's complaint. the editor is confined almost exclusively to offences of a | In the case of the Mongomeries of Scotstoun, we have a political nature, or connected with political feuds, or ori- tale of the most unmanly and brutal violence that ever ginating in the superstition or bigotry of the age. We disgraced a country's anpals, (p. 60.) The only remainare not very conversant with the records of our Justiciary ing matters that can have any interest for a general Court, and cannot, consequently, say from experience reader, are three rather minutely detailed cases of witchwhether the kinds of crime which now-a-days keeps it ex- craft. The first is the case of Bessie Dunlop, (p. 49.) clusively employed, were then thought scarce worthy its This poor woman seems to have been a visionary: there netice; but if theft, fraud, and such matters, are to be is nothing malicions in her self-delusion, nor impure in found in the original, we should have liked to have found the feelings upon which her day-dreams seem to have sotne notice of them here; for, from their comparative been founded. Though all had been true that was laid

at.

DERWENTWATER.

to her charge, we cannot for our life see its guilt. Her ists—11th, Church Establishment- 12th, Blencathra story contains an interesting exposition of the popular Threlkeld Tarn—The Cliffords—Privileged Orders—The superstition of the time. The case of Alesoun Peirsoun American Government-13th, The River Greta-Trade(p. 161) is yet more pitiable. She seems to have been - Population—Colonies—14th, The Library—15th, The alike weak and sickly in body and in mind. The fearful Conclusion-A number of learned Notes and an Appendix reality with which her nightmare dreams presented are added. themselves to her fancy, is the only crime that we find It will thus be seen that a great variety of subjects come brought home to her. There is not even an allegation under discussion, on all of which something is said worth that she ever did, or wished, harm to any human being, reading, though on some of them Mr Southey holds pecuYet both of these women were burnt by the orders of liar tenets, with which we are by no means disposed to men, who showed themselves in other matters noways agree, and his enlarging upon which, may prevent his book deficient in strength or acuteness of intellect. The case from becoming so popular, as on the whole it deserves. The of Lady Fowlis is one of a more criminal cast. It is one conversations are supposed to take place between the spiwhere we admit the justice of the ultimate sentence, not- ritual essence of Sir Thomas More (who is allowed to rewithstanding the ridiculous by-ways by which it is come visit the glimpses of the sun for this special purpose) and

Mr Southey himself, under the fanciful name of Montesinos. This is a dreary view of human nature; but what else we must refer our readers to the work for any accurate nois to be looked for in the records of crime? On the tion of its contents; but one or two short and detached passwhole, this book is an interesting one, and worthy of the ages we shall have much pleasure in extracting, as specipublic attention. If some parts of the detail of its execution be amended in the future numbers, it will prove lates to one of his own lakes,

mens of our author's truly excellent style. The first rehighly valuable.

We have felt considerably interested (and perhaps our feelings may be shared by some of our readers) to find, in pe

“ A tall, raw-boned, hard-featured North Briton said rusing these volumes, those whose names we have been ac

one day to one of our Keswick guides, at a moment where customed to meet with only in the narrative of high poli- I happened to be passing by, Well

, I have been to look at

your lake; it's a poor piece of water, with some shabby tical emulation, or (higher yet) in the poet's song, dischar-mountains round about it.' He had seen it in a cold, dark, ging quietly the ordinary avocations of life. That the names cheerless autumnal afternoon, to as great a disadvantage as, of Darnley, Morton, and Gowrie should occur, and that our I suppose, from the stamp of his visage, and the tone and distinguished lawyers should play a distinguished part in temper of his voice, he could have wished to see it, for it these annals, was to have been expected; but among the light it up. I have visited the Scotch Lakes in a kindlier

was plain he carried no suushine in himself wherewith to jurymen also, we meet with old acquaintances. We have

disposition; and the remembrance of them will ever be only time to specify George Heriot, goldsmith. His ha- cherished among my most delightful reminiscences of natubit of serving as juryman, sufficiently accounts for the inti- ral scenery. I have seen also the finest of the Alpine lakes, mate acquaintance he displayed in after life with the law of and felt on my return from both countries, that if DerScotland, as the reader may find recorded in the pages of wentwater has neither the severe grandeur of the Highland that true history, “ The Fortunes of Nigel."

waters, nor the luxuriance and sublimity and glory of the Swiss and Italian, it has enough to fill the imagination and

to satisfy the heart.”—Vol. i. pp. 237-8. Sir Thomas More; or Colloquies on the Progress and Pros Our next quotation we consider a passage of much pects of Society. By Robert Southey, Esq. LL. D. Poet

beauty : Laureat, &c. &c. &c. with Plates. Two vols. London. John Murray. 1829.

“ Surely to the sincere believer, death would be an ob The purity of Mr Southey's style, and the varied stores ject of desire instead of dread, were it not for those ties of his information, make him the best writer of English those heart-strings--by which we are attached to life. Nor prose now living. We do not mean to apply this praise so

indeed do I believe that it is natural to fear death, howmuch to his matter, as to his execution; for though the for- ever generally it may be thought so. From my own feelmer is commonly far above mediocrity, it is seldom so con- mindful that the hour cometh, and even now may be, it has

ings I have little right to judge; for, although habitually spicuously excellent as the latter.

never appeared actually near enough to make me duly appreThe work which the Poet Laureat has now given to the hend its effect upon myself. But from what I have obserpublic, is of no small dimensions, and bears the traces of ved, and what I have heard those persons say whose procareful and laborious composition. The great research which fessions lead them to the dying, I am induced to infer that he displays in the course of it, and the extent of reading and the fear of death is not common, and that where it exists, learning which he calls to his aid, without ostentation or from any principle in our nature. Certain it is, that among

it proceeds rather from a diseased and enfeebled mind, than pedantry, are perhaps its most prominent features. With the poor, the approach of dissolution is usually regarded many parts of it we have been much pleased. The tone of with a quiet and natural composure, which it is consolatory the whole is grave and dignified, and at the same time be- to contemplate, and which is as far removed from the dead rievolent and gentle. We cannot, however, say that, after palsy of unbelief, as it is from the delirious raptures of a pretty attentive perusal, we have been so much struck fanaticism. Theirs is a true unhesitating faith ; and they with the profundity or originality of the author's views, as

are willing to lay down the burden of a weary life in the

sure and certain hope of a blessed immortality. Who, inwith the copiousness of his illustrations, the fine English deed, is there that would not gladly make the exchange, if he richness and vigour of his style, and the interesting man- liver only for himself, and were to leave none who stood ner in which lighter and more imaginative writing is occa- in need of him, no eyes to weep at his departure, no sionally dovetailed into the serious disquisitions and abstract hearts to ache for his loss? The day of death, says the reasonings in which the work abounds. The Colloquics, of Preacher, is better than the day of one's birth, a sentence which there are tifteen, bear the following titles : Ist, In- that he has not lived ill, must heartily assent. The excel

to which, whoever has lived long, and may humbly hope troduction—2d, The Improvement of the World—3d, The lent Henry Scougal used to say, that, abstracted from the Druidical Stones_Visitations of Pestilence-4th, Feudal will of God, mere curiosity would make him long for ano Slavery-Growth of Pauperism–5th, Decay of the Feudal ther world.' How many of the ancients committed suicide System-Edward VI.-Alfred—6th, Walla Crag, Owen from the mere weariness of life, a conviction of the vanity of Lanark—7th, The Manufacturing System-Sth, Steam of human enjoyments, or to avoid the infirmities of old -War--Prospects of Europe-9th, Derwent water-Ca

age! This, too, in utter uncertainty concerning a future

state, not with the hope of change, for in their prospect tholic Emancipation-Ireland—10th, Crosthwaite Church there was no hope; but for the desire of death."-Vol. i. -Si Kentigern-The Reformation-Dissenters—Method. pp. 211-3.

ON THE FEAR OF DEATH.

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The following will be read with interest :

Biographical Sketches and Authentic Anecdotes of Dogs ; MR SOUTHEY'S LITERARY CAREER.

with a copious Appendir on the Breeding, Feeding, Train

ing, Diseases, and Medical Treatment of Dogs ; together “ Never can any man's life have been past more in accord

with a Treatise on the Game Laws. By Captain Thou with his own inclinations, nor more answerably to his own desires. Excepting that peace, which, through God's in

mas Brown, F.R.S.E., &c. Edinburgh. Oliver and finite mercy, is derived from a higher source, it is to litera

Boyd. 1829. Pp. 570. ture, humanly speaking, that I am beholden, not only for When Pierre says that he is "a friend to dogs," he gives the means of subsistence, but for every blessing which I en- for his reason, that they are “ honest creatures.” Now joy ;-health of body, and activity of mind, contentment, “ honesty” implies virtue, and virtue implies reason, and cheerfulness, continual employment, and therewith conti

reason mind, and mind soul, and soul immortality. This is nual pleasure Suavissima vita indies sentire se fieri meliorem; and this as Bacon has said, and Clarendon repeated, just the point we wish to come to ;-we cannot help belieis the benefit that a studious man enjoys in retirement. To ving that dogs have souls, and that those souls are immortal. the studies which I have faithfully pursued, I am indebted Put an intelligent dlog by the side of a silly man, and what to friends with whom, hereafter, it will be deemed an ho- will be the result of the comparison ?-unquestionably this, nour to have lived in friendship; and as for the enemies that in all things the quadruped is superior to the biped, which they have procured to me in sufficient numbers, only, that the one, possessing accidentally the power of happily I am not of the thin-skinned race: they might as well fire small-shot at a rhinoceros, as direct their attacks speech, which has been denied to the other, has been enabled, upon me. In omnibus requiem quæsivi, said Thomas à by the facilities thus afforded for mutual co-operation with Kempis, sed non inveni nisi in angulis et libellis. I too his fellow-men, to make farther advances from a state of have found repose where he did, in books and retirement, primitive nature. Yet even with the vast advantage to be but it was there alone I sought it: to these my nature, under derived from the power of uttering articulate sounds, are the direction of a merciful Providence, led me betimes, and the naked savages of central Africa-men though they be the world can offer nothing which should tempt me from entitled to look down with proud contempt upon the Newthem."-Vol. ii. p. 346.

foundland or the shepherd's dog ? Deprive these savages We subjoin only one other extract on an important sub- of speech, and we question very much whether they would ject, and on which no one has a better right to deliver an conduct themselves with so much moral and intellectual opinion than Mr Southey:

propriety as dogs generally do. And, on the other hand,

give speech to dogs, and thus enable them to form themTHE CORRUPTION OF ENGLISH STYLE.

selves into communities, and we see nothing chimerical in “ More lasting effect was produced by translators, who, supposing, that their progress in civilisation, science, and in later times, have corrupted our idiom as much as, in early the fine arts, would be great and rapid. Intensity and arones, they enriched our vocabulary; and to this injury the dour of feeling are universally allowed to lie at the foundaScotch have greatly contributed; for, composing in a language which is not their mother tongue, they necessarily tion of the brightest achievements of genius; and where do acquired an artificial and formal style, which, not so much we find such devoted attachment-such unshrinking fidethrough the merit of a few, as owing to the perseverance of lity—such unhesitating contidence—such generous heroism others, who for half a century seated themselves on the —such disinterested friendship, as in dogs? We ask the bench of criticism, has almost superseded the vernacular question with a grave and melancholy conviction, that the English of Addison and Swift. Our journals, indeed, have answer must be " Nowhere!” Man, it is true, can give been the great corrupters of our style

, and continue to be so; his sentiments expression, clothing them in the pleasant and not for this reason only. Men who write in newspapers, and magazines, and reviews, write for present effect; garb of flowery language, and thus attach to them an imin most cases, this is as much their natural and proper aim, portance which they do not possess, and an apparent duraas it would be in public speaking ; but when it is so, they bility which is no part of their nature ; but then how are the consider, like public speakers, not so much what is accurate virtues which he can thus occasionally display alloyed and deor just, either in matter or manner, as what will be accept- based by the continual intermixture of more sordid elements! able to those whom they address. Writing also under the excitement of emulation and rivalry, they seek, by all the Dogs cannot blazon forth their good. deeds, nor can they artifices and efforts of an ambitious style, to dazzle their write sonnets to the lady of their love; but if their lives are readers; and they are wise in their generation, experience more obscure, they are far less characterized by the indulhaving shown that common minds are taken by glittering gence of vice and unholy passions. Far better to shake the faults, both in prose and verse, as larks are with looking- honest paw of a dumb Newfoundland dog, than to grasp the glasses. “ In this school it is that most writers are now trained ;

hand of many a plodder through the tawdry meanness of and after such training, any thing like an easy and natural his selfish life! movement is as little to be looked for in their compositions, If any one wishes to entertain enlarged and enlightened as in the step of a dancing-master. To the views of style, opinions regarding this noble class of animals, (whether he which are thus generated, there must be added the inaccu- coincide in the sentiments we have just expressed or not,) let racies inevitably

arising from haste, when a certain quanti- him peruse these “ Biographical Sketches” and “ Authenty of matter is to be supplied for a daily or weekly publica- tic Anecdotes” just published by Captain Brown. He will tion, which allows of no delay,—the slovenliness that confidence as well as fatigue and inattention will produce,--and here find, besides a mass of highly useful and delightful inthe barbarisms which are the effect of ignorance, or that formation regarding the natural history and habits of every smattering of knowledge which serves only to render igno- species of dog, upwards of two hundred and twenty anecdotes, rance presumptuous. These are the causes of corruption illustrative of their dispositions, and all of the most enterin our current style; and when these are considered, there taining kind. Captain Brown has pursued his subject with would be ground for apprehending that the best writings of the last century might become as obsolete as ours in the indefatigable industry and enthusiasm, and hesitates not to like process of time, if we had not in our Liturgy and our express his conviction, that the dog“ possesses intellectual Bible, a standard from which it will not be possible wholly qualities of a much higher nature than mere instinct, and to depart."-Vol. ii. pp. 390-3.

that many of his actions must be ascribed to the exercise of These volumes are got up in a manner which reflects reason, in the proper sense of the word.” Elsewhere he credit even on Mr Murray, and are enriched with several dwells on the unsullied and inviolable ardour and purity of beautiful engravings. There can be little doubt that they to anticipate, his master's wishes, on his dread of giving of

the dog's attachment,-on his anxiety to execute, and even will still farther increase the well-earned reputation of one of the most industrious, learned, and zealous authors of the fence, on his zeal, vigour, and gratitude for the little kindpresent age.

nesses he receives, on his firmness in submitting to punishment, and on his indignation at unmerited injury. With such dispositions and capabilities, give dogs language, and

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