## Nuclear collisions from the mean-field into the fragmentation regimeAt first sight the topic dealt with in this book may seem very technical and specialized. However it aims at presenting one very fundamental aspect of modern nuclear physics. At low incident energies, the collision of two nuclei is governed by the rearrangement of individual nucleons within the average mean field created by all of them. At high energies, the wavelength of nucleons is so short that they essentially experience individual nucleon-nucleon collisions without much influence of collective nuclear effects. Very interesting and enlightening phenomena occur when the velocity of the colliding nuclei is of the same order of magnitude as the velocity of nucleons within the nuclei. Up until recently beams of nuclei accelerated to the Fermi energy and above were not available to allow for an efficient study of that transition regime. Within a few years spectacular progress has been made to clarify the main issues, formulate the operating concepts and put order in the growing body of experimental results. The contributions in this book present the current status of this new field. They go from the study of the thermodynamics of bound nuclear systems to some remarkable signatures of the collision process. Some new features of nuclear structure which are revealed in collisions at the Fermi energy are also presented. |

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Page 30

Only this second term exhibits structures for given

is possible to express the state population for a given

density of states with the Boltzmann factor and after integration on the p variable.

Only this second term exhibits structures for given

**q values**. From relation (16), itis possible to express the state population for a given

**q value**by weighting thedensity of states with the Boltzmann factor and after integration on the p variable.

Page 488

[34] this can be cast into a form where it takes a Gaussian shape (similar to the

adiabatic cutoff function in Coulomb excitation [33]): (18) f(Q,£) = exp[-C2(AQ-

C2AL)2]. Here AQ and AL denote the changes of the

optimum ...

[34] this can be cast into a form where it takes a Gaussian shape (similar to the

adiabatic cutoff function in Coulomb excitation [33]): (18) f(Q,£) = exp[-C2(AQ-

C2AL)2]. Here AQ and AL denote the changes of the

**Q**-**value**relative to theoptimum ...

Page 497

A further analysis of the neutron transfer in the system 144Sm -t-^Sr needs

corrections due to the

— i ' 1 ' 1 | 1 1 1 ' r Fig. 30. - Transfer functions for +ln and +2n transfer for the

system ...

A further analysis of the neutron transfer in the system 144Sm -t-^Sr needs

corrections due to the

**Q**-**value**dependence; the**Q**-**values**are rather negative, 1— i ' 1 ' 1 | 1 1 1 ' r Fig. 30. - Transfer functions for +ln and +2n transfer for the

system ...

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### Contents

INDICE | 1 |

Is it possible to deduce temperatures from gammaray or pion | 31 |

Guerreau Lightparticle emission as a probe of reaction mecha | 37 |

Copyright | |

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angle angular distributions angular momentum average beam bombarding energies break-up bremsstrahlung calculations central collisions channel cluster cm/ns correlation function corresponding Coulomb Coulomb barrier critical exponents cross-section curve decay degrader density dependence detected detector dipole discussed dissipation DWBA dynamics edited effects emission emitted energy loss equation ergy evaporation excitation energy experiment experimental Fermi fission fm/c fragments fusion GANIL hard-photon heavy-ion collisions high-energy impact parameter incident energy interaction isotopes kinetic energy kinetic-energy Lett light particles mass measured MeV/u momenta multifragmentation neutron multiplicity Nucl nuclear matter nuclei nucleon nucleon-nucleon collisions observed obtained pairing percolation phase space phase transition photon Phys pion prescission production projectile proton-neutron quantum reaction relative saddle point scattering shown in fig shows single-particle sion spectra spectrometer statistical target temperature thermal tion TKEL transfer two-centre velocity width yield