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Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount capital capitalist cause circulating capital cloth commodities competition condition consumed cost of production cottier crease cultivation dealers demand depend diminished duce duction effect employed employment England equal equivalent exchange exchange value exertion exist expense exports farmers farms favourable France Germany greater habits human hundred quarters important improvement increase industry Ireland labouring classes land landlord law of value less limited linen manufacture material means ment metayer mode nations natural necessary obtained occupation operations paid payment peasant peasant proprietors permanent persons political economy population portion possession present principle produce profit proportion purchase quantity racter rate of profit remuneration rent rise saving society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose tenant things tion tivated trade unproductive value of money wages wealth whole
Page 71 - facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many." Of these, the increase of dexterity of the individual workman is the most obvious and universal. It does not follow that because a thing has been done
Page 89 - undertaken by desire of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of the Institute of France, have led to the conclusion that since the Revolution of 1789, the total produce of French agriculture has doubled ; profits and wages having both increased in about the same, and rent in a still greater ratio. M. de Lavergne,
Page 477 - believed, add so great an element of success to the undertaking as to increase rather than diminish the dividend to the shareholders." § 6. The form of association, however, which if mankind continue to improve, must be expected in the end to predominate, is not that which can
Page 163 - years lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert." In his description of the country at the foot of the Western Pyrenees, he speaks no longer from surmise, but from knowledge. " Take* the road to Meneng, and come presently to a scene which was
Page 203 - then, depend mainly upon the demand and supply of labour; or as it is often expressed, on the proportion between population and capital. By population is here meant the number only of the labouring class, or rather of those who work for hire ; and by capital, only circulating capital, and not even the whole of that, but
Page 468 - representative of wealth ; or that numbers of individuals should pass over, every year, from the middle classes into a richer class, or from the class of the occupied rich to, that of the unoccupied. It is only in the backward countries of the world that increased production is still an important object : in those most advanced, what is economically needed
Page 495 - 3. Every tax ought to be levied at the time, or in the manner, in which it is most likely to be convenient for the contributor to pay it. A
Page 149 - mountains which protected it. Neither high-born nobleman, knight, nor esquire was here; but many of these humble sons of the hills had a consciousness that the land which they walked over and tilled had for more than five hundred years been possessed by men of their name and blood.
Page 467 - of ambition, the path to its attainment should be open to all, without favour or partiality. But the best state for human nature is that in which, while no one is poor, no one desires to be richer, nor has any reason to fear being thrust back, by the efforts of others to push themselves forward. § 2. I cannot, therefore, regard the
Page 207 - among whom they are shared. The condition of the class can be bettered in no other way than by altering that proportion to their advantage : and every scheme for their benefit, which does not proceed on this as its foundation, is, for all permanent purposes, a delusion.