Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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TABLE 3.7 APPROXIMATE MIXING WATER AND AIR CONTENT FOR TRIAL
BATCHES Approximate mixing water (lb/yd' of concrete) Ran8e of for nominal
maximum size of CA (in.) slump" (in.) 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 lJ 2 3 6 Non-air-entrained
When using Type I cement, approximate and conservative values can be
estimated from Table 3.9. Note that this table shows the maximum permissible w/
c ratios for specified compressive strengths. But the required average strength
DEFINITION: • Flow is the increase in the average diameter of the mortar mass in
the flow table expressed as a percentage of the original base diameter.
EQUIPMENT: Flow table, flow mold, standard tamper (1/2X1X6 in., rubber or oak)