Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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It produces the most accurately formed bricks but it is no longer widely used
because it is more expensive, due to labor costs. Bricks coming out of the forming
machines contain about 7-30 percent moisture. After molding in any of the three ...
TABLE 4.1 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING BRICK Grade Minimum
compressive strength, gross area [psi (MPa)] Maximum water absorption by 5-h
boiling (%) Average of five bricks Individual Average of five bricks Maximum ...
The color of bricks depends on the composition of the raw materials (presence of
metallic oxides) and the degree of burning. The standard color of bricks is
terracotta, or brownish-orange. Lime may be added deliberately to provide white