Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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When pig iron castings are required, it is run into a pig-casting machine. At
present, most pig iron is made into steel; the balance goes to make cast iron. Pig
iron is not pure iron; it is metal nearly saturated with carbon (taken from the coke).
Wrought iron is manufactured by melting and refining iron to a high degree of
purity. The molten metal is ... Cast iron is manufactured by reheating pig iron (in a
cupola) and blending it with other materials of known composition. Alternate
cast iron. Later, cast iron beams were developed. Wrought iron was used in
bridges and multistory buildings during the 1850s. But by the end of the
nineteenth century, steel dominated bridge and building construction. Presently,
a number of ...