Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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Electronic Materials. An atom has a nucleus consisting of two types of particles:
neutrons, which have no electrical charge (are neutral), and protons, which have
a positive electrical charge. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons ...
When this is not possible, the atom becomes stabilized or unreactive if it contains
8 electrons in the outer shell. On the other hand, if the outer shell has only seven
electrons, as in fluorine, iodine, chlorine, and bromine, the atom is reactive.
The movement of electrons in a material is controlled by the effective speed of
movement, called electron mobility. In general, the conduction of electricity
depends on the number of electrons that are available, the speed of movement,
and the ...