Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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Elements such as oxygen, with two electrons missing, are not as reactive as
flourine, with one missing electron in the outer shell. Metals are elements that
have a tendency to release their electrons. When the electrons from the outer
shell of a ...
The net reduction in length of a concrete element is thus due to shrinkage and
reduction in temperature. Contraction and Construction Joints. When concrete is
allowed to shrink without any restraint, no cracks will form. But most structures ...
In the BOF, high-purity oxygen is blown at high velocity through the upright
furnace to promote rapid oxidation, which is the combination of oxygen with
nonferrous elements, especially carbon. This reaction generates enough thermal
energy to ...