Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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Ultimate strength is the maximum stress that can be applied to a material before it
fractures (Fig. 1.5). It is the highest point on the stress-strain diagram. In some
materials, such as steel and wrought iron, the area of cross-section at fracture is ...
4. Apply the load continuously at a rate that constantly increases the extreme
fiber stress between 125-175 psi/m (861-1207 kPa/m) until rupture occurs (about
2-6 m). 5. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside the middle third of
Hot-rolled steel shapes used in the majority of steel buildings are not prone to
brittle failure. When fracture occurs by cleavage at a nominal tensile stress that is
below yield stress, it is called brittle fracture. Increased strain rates — or