Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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The first iron produced in the United States was at Saugus, Massachusetts, in
1645, by employing ironworkers brought over from England. The iron was used
to make plows, tools, swords and, of course, nails. By about 1770, some 30,000
As noted, pig iron (tapped every 4-6 hours) runs to hot metal cars for conveyance
to the steelmaking location. When pig iron castings are required, it is run into a
pig-casting machine. At present, most pig iron is made into steel; the balance ...
The upper theoretical limit of carbon in steel is 1.7 percent; in structural steel the
carbon content is generally less than 0.25 percent (by weight). Wrought Iron.
Wrought iron is manufactured by melting and refining iron to a high degree of