Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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The actual composition of lignin varies between species, and it is polymerized in
plant cell walls from three primary precursor monomer alcohols. Comprising
around 23-33 percent of softwood and 16-25 percent of hardwood, lignin is the
oxidation and polymerization, and can be minimized by keeping the number of
connecting pores or air voids low and coating the particles thickly. 6.5 ASPHALT
GRADES Asphalt cements are graded according to four different systems: ...
The process of building up small molecules in a long chain to form a large
molecule is called polymerization. This is accomplished under heat, heat and
pressure, or in the presence of catalysts. The structure of plastics is similar to that
of other ...