Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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3.8.6 Shrinkage Concrete has the largest volume at the time of mixing or when it
is placed freshly in forms. As it sets, the concrete slowly decreases in volume or,
simply, it shrinks. Shrinkage or volume reduction, also called contraction, is the ...
Plastic shrinkage cracks are more common in slabs and pavements, as the large
surface area contributes to high evaporation loss. When the evaporation loss is
faster than the rise of water from bleeding, the water is forced out of interior much
When this shrinkage is restrained, internally or externally, the slab cracks.
Provision of control joints minimizes the extent of these cracks. Free or
unrestrained shrinkage does not cause cracks, but the restraint to shrinkage does
. Drying ...