Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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Raw material Compound Cement rock Lime, silica, alumina Limestone Lime
Chalk Lime Slag Lime, silica, alumina Oyster shell Lime Marble Lime Clay Silica,
alumina Shale Alumina Fly ash Alumina, silica Kaolin Alumina Bauxite Alumina ...
This is followed by expansion or swelling of the aggregate particles, causing
cracks and promoting disintegration of concrete, and this reaction is called alkali-
aggregate reaction or alkali- silica reaction The term alkali refers to the sodium
These primarily consists of noncrystalline silica — 85-95 percent silicon dioxide,
with small percentages of alumina, iron oxide, and lime. The specific gravity of
silica fume is low, with an average of 2.2. It weighs about 9-25 pcf. Due to its ...