Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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Most contain a large amount of silica or quartz — some 45-85 percent — and
smaller amounts of alumina (10-20 percent), ... such as calcined clays and shales
and volcanic tuffs Silica fume In high-strength concrete; to improve watertightness
Silica fume or condensed silica fume (also called fumed silica) is a byproduct
from the electric-arc furnaces of the silicon metal and ferrosilicon alloy industries.
The reduction of quartz to silicon at very high temperatures produces SiO vapors
These primarily consists of noncrystalline silica — 85-95 percent silicon dioxide,
with small percentages of alumina, iron oxide, and lime. The specific gravity of
silica fume is low, with an average of 2.2. It weighs about 9-25 pcf. Due to its ...