Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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In other words, for the same cement content per unit volume of concrete, the
water to cement ratio should be higher in warm climates than for concrete of the
same slump in cold climates. Consistency and Slump. Consistency is a measure
Near-zero slump (b) Normal slump (c) Shear slump (d) Collapse slump Figure
3.8 Types of slump. A very dry mix, one with a low water content, will have a near
zero slump. Lightweight aggregates absorb much water, leading to a harsh mix ...
For thin walls, a wet mix or a mixture with high slump may be required. Most
specifications permit the use of concrete of lower than recommended slump,
provided it is properly placed and consolidated. A slump test is generally carried
out at ...