Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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Viscosity. At temperatures between 160-300 °F (70-150 °C), asphalt behaves as
a viscous liquid. Below 160 °F (70 °C), the behavior can be described as linearly
viscoelastic. Below about -4 °F (-20 °C), asphalt becomes a weak and brittle ...
6.4.7 Temperature Susceptibility All asphalts are thermoplastic; they become
harder (more viscous) with decrease in temperature and softer (less viscous) with
increase in temperature. The temperature susceptibility of asphalt varies from
6.5 ASPHALT GRADES Asphalt cements are graded according to four different
systems: • Viscosity grading system • Viscosity-after-aging grading system •
Penetration grading system • Performance-based grading system Traditionally,