Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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2.3.2 Bulk Density and Voids Unit weight or bulk density (also called dry-rodded
weight, specific weight, and dry- loose weight) is the mass of aggregate per unit
bulk volume. The mass of the sample is determined in oven-dry condition (after ...
Nonetheless, the w/c rule does provide a convenient method of controlling the
quality of concrete: at any cement content, increase in the ratio decreases the
compressive strength. Influence of Voids. Increase in the water content increases
8.6.4 Degree of Saturation The degree of saturation (5) is the ratio of the volume
of water to the total volume of voidspace: „ , volume of water Degree of saturation,
S = — ; — — X 100 volume of voids or, weight of water — x 100 ww X volume of ...