Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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The surface moisture in fine aggregates can cause an increase in the volume —
compared to the dry volume — called bulking. Bulking is defined as the percent
increase in volume of an aggregate over its dry-rodded volume, and is caused by
3.8.6 Shrinkage Concrete has the largest volume at the time of mixing or when it
is placed freshly in forms. As it sets, the concrete slowly decreases in volume or,
simply, it shrinks. Shrinkage or volume reduction, also called contraction, is the ...
Both density and volume of wood vary with the moisture content, and thus the two
closely related physical properties of wood, density and specific gravity, can be
measured in different ways. In many parts of the world, wood density is ...