Civil Engineering Materials
This book deals with properties, applications and analysis of important materials of construction/civil engineering. It offers full coverage of how materials are made or obtained, their physical properties, their mechanical properties, how they are used in construction, how they are tested in the lab, and their strength characteristics--information that is essential for material selection and elementary design. Contains illustrative examples and tables and figures from professional organizations. Considers all common materials of civil engineering/construction--and looks at each in depth: e.g., physical properties, mechanical properties, code provisions, methods of testing, quality control, construction procedures, and material selection. Discusses laboratory testing procedures for selected tests--provides step-by-step descriptions of laboratory test procedures to determine properties of materials. All test procedures are based on relevant ASTM specification. For Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Architects, and Agricultural Engineers.
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Although the w/c ratio is a major variable in the design of concrete mixtures, the
relationship between this ratio and the compressive strength is not unique. The
same strength cannot be maintained when the cement-aggregate proportions are
Step 4: Select the water-to-cement ratio (w/c). The w/c ratio (by weight) is
selected by strength and durability requirements. When using Type I cement,
approximate and conservative values can be estimated from Table 3.9. Note that
this table ...
7000 r 6000 5000 4000 a S Q 3000 2000 Required average Specified (design)
0.3 0.4 0.5 Water/cement ratio 0.6 0.7 Figure 3.40 Specified and required
average strengths. This means that if the mix is made using a w/c of 0.58, the