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We cannot say,
case, nor be construed as a passive verb. she smiled him, or, he was smiled. But to smile on being a compound active verb, we properly say, she smiled on him; he was smiled on by fortune in every undertaking.
Auxiliary or helping Verbs, are those by the help of which the English verbs are principally conjugated. They are, do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, with their variations; and let and must, which have no variation.*
In our definition of the verb, as a part of speech which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer, &c. we have included every thing, either expressly or by necessary consequence, that is essential to its nature, and nothing that is not essential to it. This definition is warranted by the authority of Dr. Lowth, and of many other respectable writers on * grammar. There are, however, some grammarians, who consider assertion as the essence of the verb. But, as the participle and the infinitive, if included in it, would prove insuperable objections to their scheme, they have, without hesitation, denied the former a place in the verb, and declared the latter to be merely an abstract noun. pears to be going rather too far in support of an hypothesis. It seems to be incumbent on these grammarians, to reject also the imperative mood. What part of speech would they make the verbs in the following sentence?“ Depart instantly : improve your time : forgive us our sins.” Will it be said, that the verbs in these phrases are assertions ?
In reply to these questions, it has been said, that “ Depart instantly,” is an expression equivalent to, “I desire you to depart instantly;" and that as the latter phrase implies affirmation or assertion, so does the former. But, supposing the phrases. to be exactly alike in sense, the reasoning is not conclusive. 1st. In the latter phrase, the only part implying affirmation, is, “ I desire.” The words
to depart," are in the infinitive mood, and contain no assertion : they affirm nothing. 2d. The position is not tenable, that "Equivalence in sense implies similarity in grammatical nature.” It proves too much, and therefore nothing. This mode of reasoning would confound the acknowledged grammatical distinction of words. A pro* Lel, as a principal verb, has lettest and letleth ; but as a lielping verb, ic ad
mits of no variation.
sons plural, is the same as it is in the first person singular. Yet this scanty provision of terminations is sufficient for all the purposes of discourse, and no ambiguity arises from it : the verb being always attended, either with the noun expressing the subject acting or acted upon, or with the pronoun representing it. For this reason, the plural termination in en, they loven, they weren, formerly in use, was laid aside as unnecessary, and has long been obsolete.
Section 3. Of Moods and Participles. Mood or Mode is a particular form of the verb, showing the manner in which the being, action, or passion, is represented.
The nature of a mood may be more intelligibly explained to the scholar, by observing, that it consists in the change which the verb undergoes, to signify various intentions of the mind, and various modifications and circumstané es of action: which explanation, if compared with the following account and uses of the different moods, will be found to agree with and illustrate them.
There are five moods of verbs, the INDICATIVE, the IMPERATIVE,
the POTENTIAL, the SUBJUNCTIVE, and the INFINITIVE.
The Indicative Mood simply indicates or declares a thing: as, " He loves, he is loved :” or it asks a ques
“ Does he love ?” “Is he loved ?". The Imperative Mood is used for commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting : as, “ Depart thou; mind ye ; let us stay; go in peace.”
Though this mood derives its name from its intimation of command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite nature, even in the humblest supplications of an inferior being to one who is infinitely his superior : as, this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses.
The Potential Mood implies possiblity or liberty, power, will, or obligation : as, “It may rain; he may go or stay, I can ride; he would walk ; they should learn.'
The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c.; and is p
tion : as,
6. Give us
ceded by a conjunction, expressed or understood, and attended by another verb: as, “I will respect him, though he chide me;" “ Were he good, he would be happy;" that is, " if he were good.”--See note 8 to Rule 19.
The Infinitive Mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without any distinction of numher or person; as, “ to act, to speak, to be feared."
The participle is a certain form of the verb, and de. rives its name from its participating, not only of the properties of a verb, but also of those of an adjective: as, “ I am desirous of knowing him ;' « admired and applauded, he became vain ;' Having finished his work, he submitted it," &c.
There are three participles, the Present or Active, the Perfect or Passive, and the Compound Perfect : as, " loving, loved, having loved.”-See p. 94.
Agreeably to the general practice of grammarians, we have represented the present participle, as active; and the past, as passive : but they are not uniformly so: the present is sometimes passive ; and the past is frequently active. Thus, " The youth was consuming by a slow malady;"
;" “ The Indian was burning by the cruelty of his enemies ;” appear to be instances of the present participle being used passively. “ He has instructed me;" " I have gratefully repaid his kindness ;” are examples of the past participle being applied in an active sense. We may also observe, that the present participle is sometimes associated with the past and future tenses of the verb; and the past participle connected with the present and future tenses.--The most unexceptionable distinction which grammarians make between the participles, is, that the one points to the continuation of the action, passion, or state, denoted by the verb; and the other, to the completion of it. Thus, the present participle signifies imperfect action, or action begun and not ended : as, “ I am writing a letter.” The past participle signifies action perfected, or tinished: : as, “I have written a letter;" "The letter is written."*
* When this participle is joined to the verb to have, it is called perfect ; viten 11 * inind to the verb to be, or understood with it, it is denominated passive.
The participle is distinguished from the adjective, by the former's expressing the idea of time, and the latter's de. noting only a quality. The phrases, “ loving to give as well as to receive, moving in haste, cheated with liquor," contain participles giving the idea of time; but the epithets contained in the expressions, “a loving child,"
a moving spectacle,"... a heated imagination,” mark simply the qualities referred to, without
any regard to time; and may properly be called participial adjectives.
Participles not only convey the notion of time ; but they also signify actions, and govern the cases of nouns and pronouns, in the same manner as verbs do; and therefore should bé comprehended in the general name of verbs. . That they are mere modes of the verb, is manifest, if our definition of a verb be admitted : for they signify being, doing, or suffering, with the designation of time superadded. But if the esgence of the verb be made to consist in affirmation or assertion, not only the participle will be excluded from its place in the verb, but the infinitive itself also; which certain ancient grammarians of great authority held to be alone the genuine verb, simple and unconnected with persons and circumstances.
The following phrases, even when considered in themselves, show that participles include the idea of time : "The letter being written, or having been written ;' " Charles being writing, having written, or having been writing. But when arranged in an entire sentence, which they must be to make a complete sense, they show it still more evidently: as, “Charles having written the letter, sealed and despatched it.”—The participle does indeed associate with different tenses of the verb: as, "I am writing," "I was writing,” “ I shall be writing :" but this forms no just objection to its denoting time. I the time of it is often relative time, this circumstance, far from disproving, supports our position.f. See observations under Rule 13 of Syntax.
Participles sometimes perform the office of substantives, and are used as such; as in the following instances: “ The
# From the very nature of time, an action may be present non, it may have been present formerly, or it may be present at some future period-get who ever supposed, that the present of the indicative denotes no time?