## Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Volume 4; Volume 8, Part 4American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1989 - Arctic regions |

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Page 50

In the smeared approach the

normal local

In the smeared approach the

**crack**opening displacement is replaced by anormal local

**crack**strain enn and the**crack**sliding displacement by a shear local**crack**strain ent . The global**crack**strains are obtained by transforming the local**crack**...Page 57

ğ uğñas ( nõeñas where the Heaviside function hõ , ño ) is defined by Hỡ , " p ) -

Hong ) ( 12 ) 2.2 Strain Tensor ĉc * due to the

ğ uğñas ( nõeñas where the Heaviside function hõ , ño ) is defined by Hỡ , " p ) -

Hong ) ( 12 ) 2.2 Strain Tensor ĉc * due to the

**Cracks**in a Body with a Parallel**Crack**Field A body with several penny - shaped**cracks**whose normals to the**crack**...Page 58

101 of ; : * ( 13 ) * or * c * ij - ( 18 ) Pijkl ok1 * where oi is the ij'th component of q *

in the

the

...

101 of ; : * ( 13 ) * or * c * ij - ( 18 ) Pijkl ok1 * where oi is the ij'th component of q *

in the

**crack**coordinate system . In terms of Expression ( 13 ) , the unit normal tothe

**crack**surface is where S is the fourth - order compliance tensor describing the...

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### Contents

OFFSHORE MECHANICS | 1 |

ICE FORCES | 11 |

MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY | 24 |

Copyright | |

22 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

analysis applied approach Arctic assumed average behaviour body calculated coefficient components compression compressive stress computed considered constant crack creep damage deformation dependent depth described determined developed diameter direction distribution effect elastic energy Engineering equation estimate experiments expression factor failure field Figure floe force fracture frequency function given grain grain boundary horizontal ice sheet iceberg impact increase initial International length limit load mass material maximum mean measured Mechanics method microcracks motion normal nucleation observed obtained Offshore operation parameters peak performed plane position predicted present pressure probability range ratio Regions relation relative Research resistance ridge samples sea ice shear ship shown shows simulation specimen strain rate strength stress structure surface Table temperature tensile tensor tests thickness toughness uniaxial vertical wave