Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
In 1974 when I published my book, Biological Mechanism of Attachment, not many pages were required to report on the attachment devices of insect cuticles. As in most fields of research, our knowledge on this specific subject has simply exploded. Dr. Stanislav N. Gorb now describes the present day level of our knowledge, to which he has personally contributed so much, and a research team working on biological microtribology has gradually developed, also. With modern methods of measurement it is possible to enter the structure – function relationship much more deeply, even down to a molecular level, which was not possible two and a half decades ago. It is a well known fact that, in biology, the more sophisticated the measuring method, the greater the achievement of biological fundamental research, and its resulting evidence. Our knowledge remains at a certain level until new methods once more permit a forward leap. Biological knowledge develops in the form of a stepped curve rather than linear, as reflected in the studies carried out on the attachment devices of insect cuticles.
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abdominal acanthae adapted adhesive adhesive force arolium arrester system arthropods attachment abilities attachment devices attachment force attachment pads attachment systems Bauchhenss beetle biological body Chapter chitin claws Coenagrionidae Coleoptera contact area copulation corresponding coverage covered coxa crustaceans cuticle cuticular density Diptera distal dorsal dragonfly elytra epicuticle epidermal cells euplantulae female fixation flight fold forewing frenulum friction force frictional systems function Gorb hairs hairy head Heteroptera hexapod hindwing hook-like hooks Hymenoptera increase insect insect attachment interlock larvae layer Lepidoptera Libellulidae located locking male material mechanism medial membrane microfibrils microsculpture microtrichia microtrichia fields mites mobile muscles Odonata odonate outgrowths ovipositor parasitic plant surfaces pore canals postcervical sclerite posterior presumably pretarsus proboscis procuticle properties pulvilli resilin sclerites secretion segments sensory setae shape similar smooth surfaces specialised species substrata substratum sucker tarsal tarsus taxa tenent setae thorax trichoid sensilla trichomes ultrastructure unguitractor usually valvulae wing wing-locking