Biological Thermodynamics

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, 2001 - Science - 379 pages
Biological Thermodynamics provides an introduction to the study of energy transformations for students of the biological sciences. Donald Haynie uses an informal writing style to introduce this core subject in a manner that will appeal to biology and biochemistry undergraduate students. The emphasis of the text is placed on understanding basic concepts and developing problem-solving skills throughout the text. The level of mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum. Each chapter provides numerous examples taken from different areas of biochemistry, as well as extensive exercises to aid understanding. Topics covered include energy and its transformation, the First Law of Thermodynamics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Gibbs Free Energy, statistical thermodynamics, binding equilibria and reaction kinetics, and a survey of the most exciting areas of biological thermodynamics today, particularly the origin of life on Earth.

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Contents

Energy transformation
1
Distribution of energy
5
System boundary and surroundings
8
Animal energy consumption
11
Carbon energy and life
14
References and further reading
15
Exercises
16
The First Law of Thermodynamics
21
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and life
173
References and further reading
174
Exercises
178
Statistical thermodynamics
185
Diffusion
188
Boltzmann distribution
192
Partition function
198
Analysis of thermodynamic data
200

Internal energy
24
Work
26
The First Law in operation
29
Enthalpy
32
Standard state
35
Some examples from biochemistry
36
Heat capacity
40
Energy conservation in the living organism
43
Exercises
45
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
49
Entropy
52
Heat engines
56
Entropy of the universe
59
Isothermal systems
60
Protein denaturation
62
The Third Law and biology
63
Irreversibility and life
64
References and further reading
67
Exercises
69
Gibbs free energy theory
73
Equilibrium
76
Reversible processes
80
Phase transitions
82
Chemical potential
85
Effect of solutes on boiling points and freezing points
89
Ionic solutions
90
Equilibrium constant
93
Standard state in biochemistry
96
Effect of temperature on Keq
98
Acids and bases
100
Chemical coupling
102
Redox reactions
104
References and further reading
108
Exercises
110
Gibbs free energy applications
119
Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP hydrolysis
123
Substrate cycling
129
Osmosis
130
Dialysis
136
Donnan equilibrium
139
Membrane transport
140
Enzymesubstrate interaction
144
Molecular pharmacology
146
Hemoglobin
151
Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay ELISA
154
DNA
155
Polymerase chain reaction PCR
159
Free energy of transfer of amino acids
161
Protein solubility
163
Protein stability
165
Protein dynamics
171
Multistate equilibria
204
Protein heat capacity functions
209
Cooperative transitions
210
Interaction free energy
212
Helixcoil transition theory
214
References and further reading
217
Exercises
220
Binding equilibria
223
Singlesite model
225
Multiple independent sites
226
Oxygen transport
231
Scatchard plots and Hill plots
235
Allosteric regulation
240
Proton binding
242
References and further reading
245
Exercises
247
Reaction kinetics
251
Rate of reaction
254
Rate constant and order of reaction
255
Firstorder and secondorder reactions
257
Temperature effects
259
Collision theory
261
Transition state theory
262
Electron transfer kinetics
265
Enzyme kinetics
267
Inhibition
271
Reaction mechanism of lysozyme
273
Hydrogen exchange
275
Protein folding and pathological misfolding
278
Polymerization
281
Muscle contraction and molecular motors
284
References and further reading
286
Exercises
288
The frontier of biological thermodynamics
293
The laws of thermodynamics and our universe
296
Thermodynamics of small systems eg molecular motors
297
Formation of the first biological macromolecules
298
Bacteria
303
Energy information and life
304
Biology and complexity
314
The Second Law and evolution
319
References and further reading
323
Exercises
327
General references
331
Biocalorimetry
335
Useful tables
341
BASIC program for computing the intrinsic rate of amide hydrogen exchange from the backbone of a polypeptide
347
Glossary
363
Index of names
373
Subject index
375

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