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mediate descendants of the veterans of the revolution, visit it, they will be reminded, as he was, of the great obligations of gratitude which we owe to our political fathers. The "Hall of Independence" will, however, ere long be mutilated, and ultimately destroyed by the rade hand of time. But the following names of the signers of the Declaration, and all who coöperated with them, in conducting the American revolution to a successful issue, will live for ever; for virtue and truth are immortal. JOHN HANCOCK, John Witherspoon,

Charles Carroll of CarJosiah Bartlett, Francis Hopkinson,

rollton, William Whipple, John Hart,

George Wythe, Matthew Thornton,

Abraham Clark, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams,

Robert Morris, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Harrison, Robert Treat Paine, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Nelson, jun. Elbridge Gerry, John Morton, Francis Lightfoot Lee, Stephen Hopkins, George


Carter Braxton,
William Ellery,
James Smith,

William Hooper,
Roger Sherman, George Taylor, Joseph Hewes,
Samuel Huntington,
James Wilson,

John Penn,
William Williams, George

Ross, Edward Rutledge, Oliver Wolcott, Cesar Rodney,

Thomas Heyward, jun. William Floyd, George Read,

Thomas Lynch, jun.
Philip Livingston,
Thomas M'Kean,

Arthur Middleton,
Francis Lewis,
Samuel Chase,

Button Gwinnett,
Lewis Morris,
William Paca,

Lyman Hall,
Richard Stockton, Thomas Stone,

George Walton. The Declaration is read at our celebrations on each returning anniversary of the independence of the United States, in nearly all our cities and villages; but we all know, that it is not always well read. In reading it, great pains should be taken to avoid errors in articulation. The rate of utterance should not be very rapid, nor very slow. The style should be colloquial, and yet animated and manly.


LAND.Patrick Henry. 1. Mr. President: It is natural for man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that syren, till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those, who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation ? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for it,

2. I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future, but by the past. And, judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the house. Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received ? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition, comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters, and darken our land.

3. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation ? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled, that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugationthe last arguments to which kings resort

. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies ? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us: they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us, those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging.

4. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we any thing new to offer upon the subject ? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication ?-What terms shall we find, which have not been already exhausted ? Let us not, I beseech you, deceive ourselves longer.

5. Sir, we have done every thing that could be done, to avert the storm which is now coming on.

We have petitioned,--we have remonstrated, we have supplicated,---we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition, to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and parliament. Our petitions have been slighted our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult,-our supplications have been disregarded, and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne.

6. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace

and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free-if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending—if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon, until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained,—we must fight! I reFeat it, sir—we must fight!! An appeal to arms and to the God of hosts, is all that is left us!

7. They tell us, sir, that we are weak-unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger ? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house ? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot ? Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power,

8. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our batiles alone. There is a just God, who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us.

9. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat, but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitableand let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come !!

10. It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry peace, peace, but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north, will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle ? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have ? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know

not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me-death

This speech of Patrick Henry, was made in the spring of 1775, before the convention of delegates from the several counties of Virginia. The subject upon which he spoke, being a question of freedom or slavery, called into active and irrepressible operation, all the energies of his nature. The matter which the speech contains is so excellent, and the manner in which it was delivered, was so eloquent, that "it inade' the prince tremble on his distant throne, and shook the brightest jewels from the British crown.” Mr. Henry was decidedly the greatest orator of the revolution. He was so critical an observer of the workings of the human passions, that he has been justly styled “nature's own orator.” His manner of speaking was distinguished by that best gift of an orator, earnestness. He knew that, as Horace says:

“ With them who laugh our social joy appears;

With them who mourn we sympathize in tears;
If you would have me weep, begin the strain,
Then I shall feel your sorrows, feel your pain;
But if your heroes act not what they say,
I sleep or laugh the lifeless scene away.

To obtain a thorough knowledge of Patrick Henry's character, it is necessary to read Wirt's work on that subject. The speech of Henry on the question of war with England, is a good one upon which to practise, as an exercise in elocution. It requires a pretty high key, rather a rapid rate of utterance, occasionally some quantity, and frequently emphasis. The phrases in which he tells his hearers that they must." appeal to arms,” and

fight,” should be given on a high key-the name of Deity, with quantity, and a low key.




1. Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness !

This is the state of man: To-day, he puts forth
The tender leaves of hope; to-morrow, blossoms,
And bears his blushing honors thick upon him ;
The third day comes a frost, a killing frost;
And when he thinks, good, easy man, full surely
His greatness is a ripening, nips his root;

And then he falls, as I do. 2.

I have ventured, Like little wanton boys, that swim on bladders,

These many summers in a sea of glory;
But far beyond my depth; my high-blown pride
At length broke under me; and now has left me,
Weary, and old with service, to the mercy
, Of a rude stream, that must for ever hide me.
Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye !

I feel my heart now open'd. 3.

O! how wretched
Is that poor man that hangs on princes' favors !
There are, betwixt that smile he would aspire to,
That sweet aspect of princes, and his ruin,

pangs and fears, than war or women have; And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer, Never to rise again. "Wolsey's Soliloquy on Ambition," and also his "Farewell Address to Cromwell,” should be read or recited in a plaintive manner, on rather a low key, with a slow rate of utterance, and with quantity.



1. Cromwell, I did not think to shed a tear

In all my miseries; but thou hast forced me,
Out of thy honest truth, to play the woman.
Let's dry our eyes; and, thus far, hear me, Cromwell;
And, when I am forgotten, as I shall be,
And sleep in dull, cold marble, where no mention
Of me more must be heard of, say then, I taught thee
Say, Wolsey, that once trod the ways of glory,
And sounded all the depths and shoals of honor,
Found thee a way, out of his wreck, to rise in;
A sure and safe one, though thy master miss'd it.

2. Mark but my fall, and that, that ruin'd me. Cromwell

, I charge thee, fling away ambition; sin,

fell the angels; how can man, then, The image of his Maker, hope to win by it? Love thyself last; cherish those hearts that hate thee;

By that

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