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to guide and control it in its work- logy, properly so understood, were ings ! but power was wanting. but a preparation for the Gospel.
We have never, in our study of “The process of change had been the workings of the human mind, slow; it had been done, not rashly, fallen upon any incidents more re- but by rule and measure, at sundry markable than those by which this times and in divers manners, first noble and generous spirit was gra- one disclosure, and then another, dually swept aside from its original till the whole was brought into full purpose. When first he adopted manifestation. And thus room Milner's views in regard to the spe- was made for the manifestation of cial outpourings of the Spirit on the further and deeper disclosures of Church, he regarded the Church of truths still under the veil of the Rome, by which this doctrine is letter, and in their season to be resystematically taught, with unmiti- vealed.” No wonder that an ingated abhorrence. The more he tellect, so mystified by what it deconsidered the point, however, the voured without being able to digest, less he felt inclined to cavil at the should become troubled by discorollary which the Church of Rome covering a parallel between the draws from the doctrine. Why, if position of the Arians in the early general effusions be real, should Church, and that of Anglicanism in particular effusions be rejected ? the Church as it exists. Both stood Why assert, dogmatically, that the apart from the teaching of the gift of miracles may not be in- Church universal; both denied its tended to accompany transcend- authority and rejected its tradient piety in all ages? He was tions; and though the errors of the in this state when his intimacy latter might, to careless eyes, apwith Hurrell Froude began. From pear in some respects less deadly him he learned to think with less than those of the former, they were abhorrence of Rome - with less still of a nature seriously to shock reverence for the leaders of the Re- and alarm one who, like Newman, formation. The maxim that “The believed in angels, not only as God's Bible, and the Bible only,” is the instruments for carrying on the religion of Protestants, ceased by economy of the Jewish and Chrisdegrees to have weight with him, tian dispensations, but as the causes and he accepted the opinion that of motion, light, and life-of those Tradition is at least a main instru- elementary principles of the phyment of religious teaching. He took, sical universe which, when offered then, to reading the Fathers, whom, in their development to our senses, however, he had but imperfectly stu- suggest to us the notions of cause died, when, in 1830, Hugh Rose and and effect, and of what are called Mr Lyal, late Dean of Canterbury, the laws of nature. engaged him to co-operate with Such a belief in angels leads, althem in a great literary undertak- most necessarily, to a belief in their ing, by writing a History of the opposites—daiponia, or inferior spiPrincipal Councils of the Church. rits; a middle race, neither of heaven Beginning with that of Nicæa, he nor of hell; capricious, wayward, got involved in difficulties through benevolent, or malicious, as the case which the amount of his theological may be. These influence races, learning was insufficient to guide nations, and classes of men, separhim. His old Berkeleyism-if we ating them, as we see, into antagmay so call it—became confirmed onisms in manners, religion, and and extended by what he accepted policy. Newman accepted daluovia as the teaching of Clement and as realities, and came to the concluof Origen. Nature was a parable; sion that he was justified in so doScripture was an allegory; pagan ing, by the special mention made literature, philosophy, and mytho- in Daniel of the Prince of Persia."
He believed also that it was of came up. The object aimed at, intermediate beings of this sort that therefore, was to bring Churchmention is made in the Apocalypse, men to accept this ideal, and so, under the head of "the Angels of in time, to raise the Church itself the Seven Churches.” Finally, he to its proper level. But there took his own view of the Church was in the Church a condition of and nation of England, which, how- things which, while it increased ever, cannot fairly be stated except the difficulty of the undertaking a in his own words :
hundredfold, irritated more than it
depressed the leaders in the enter“I made a further development of prise. The Church was split into this doctrine. I said to my great friend, parties, the two most important of Samuel Francis Wood, in a letter which
which were irreconcilably at varicame into my hands on his death, ‘I have an idea. The mass of the Fathers
ance on almost every point of doc(Justin, Athenagoras, Irenæus, Cle- trine and discipline. Newman had ment, Tertullian, Origen, Lactantius, little in common with either. Upon Sulpicius, Ambrose, Nazianzen) hold the section to which in early life he that, though Satan fell from the begin. belonged he looked now with sentining, the angels fell before the deluge,
ments as much of hostility as of falling in love with the daughters of contempt. He detested the time
This has lately come across me as a remarkable solution of a notion serving worldliness of the so-called which I cannot help holding. Daniel Evangelical school, holding their speaks as if each nation had its guar- imperfect learning very cheap, and dian angel. I cannot but think that their utter lack of self-denial in there are beings with a great deal of abhorrence. And equally distastegood in them, yet with great defects, ful to him was the narrow-mindedwho are the animating principles of certain institutions.
ness of the stiff, high and dry, orland, with many high virtues and yet a
thodox clergy, whose perfect satislow Catholicism. It seems to me that faction with the state of things John Bull is a spirit neither of heaven which the Revolution of 1688 had nor hell.
Has not the Christian established filled him with wrath. Church in its parts surrendered itself to
He could make common cause with one or other of these similations of the neither, but gradually built up for truth? la and Charybdis, and go on straight himself a theology and church histo the very image of Christ ?"
tory of his own, to which both were
invited to subscribe. By degrees Newman was in this state of he discovered that the reasoning, mind when the grave events befell, which appeared logical enough to which we referred not long ago, when first broached to convince forcing every man in England who others, had failed to convince himwas capable of thought to think, self. The via media which he enand driving Newman himself, with deavoured to follow led nowhere; the little band who accepted him as and there remained for him but the their leader, to enter upon a cru- ghastly alternative of Rome on the sade, of which the success was, for one hand, and total infidelity on a time, marvellous. But neither the other. was Newman fitted by the consti- That better things might have tution of his own mind, nor some come of Dr Newman's labours had of his collaborateurs by the amount the heads of the English Church of their learning, to conduct a known better how to utilise them, great enterprise, however well be- has often been asserted. It may be gun, to a successful issue. They so; but it seems to us more probelieved that they had discovered bable that, whether the Jerusalem an ideal of the Church, to which bishopric had been erected or not, the Church of England, as it had and Tract 90 suffered to go uncenheretofore been received, never sured, the results, so far as Dr
Newman is himself concerned, point all became misty and obscure, would have been pretty much what producing first distrust, and bythey were. He was in the full cur- and - by an instinct of repulsion rent of the stream, long before he from views which even he who himself appears to have been aware undertook to enunciate them did of it. The sermon which Mr Kings- not appear completely to underley so unfortunately quoted was the stand. thesis of a Protestant divine dissa- Dr Newman, as has already been tisfied with the teaching of his own stated, found shelter from his own Church, yet by no means reconcil- doubts and misgivings in the bosom ed to the teaching of any other. of the Romish Church. It was his And Tract 90 enunciates a theory sole escape, and a desperate one, which the writer had established for from utter infidelity. He carried himself, while as yet he considered with him to his new restingthe Pope and the Papal system to place all his poetic belief in the be Antichrist. Are there marks of ministration of angels and of deduplicity in these things ? Quite mons; his persuasion that outward otherwise. They make abundantly things are but the signs and tokens manifest the fact, that the mind of unseen realities; his conviction which, in 1826, was at rest under that God exists, though man be uncertain convictions, had, in 1844, able to assign any certain ground lost these convictions; but they es- for such conviction; and a perfect tablish against it no charge what- aptitude to receive as true any ever of acting the part of a traitor other mysteries which the Church towards its old convictions, far less may affirm, any miracles for the of trying to mislead such minds as verity of which she shall vouch. still felt themselves bound by these A few, and only a few, of that convictions.
large body of men to whom his Mr Kingsley, and persons of his word had once been law, went calibre, cannot see this. They ar- with him. Of the residue, many rive at such convictions as control escaped a similar conclusion by runthem, if convictions they may be ning into its very opposite. He called, without going through any had taught them to speculate and process of flux and reflux. They refine, but pointed to no sure issue repeat the same things over and of their inquiries. They did not over again, without ever stopping possess, as he did, a boundless cato ask for proofs of that certainty pacity of faith; and, failing to disin which they rejoice. And hence cover in tradition the authority it comes to pass that, when they find which he claimed for it, they others teaching to-day that which started off like a broken bow, they did not teach a year or two and became Liberals. This it ago, they account for the phenome- was, and not a rebound from non by raising a cry of traitors the Tractarian movement, which Newman was no
called into existence that school of more a traitor in 1844 than he had rationalistic Christianity of which been in 1826. But if his perpet- Mr Kingsley, we believe, proual drifting from one set of views fesses to be a member.
But as to another affords proof enough Mr Kingsley did not learn his that he was destitute of those spe- philosophy at first hand from any cial qualities which justify men in great master, so he has shown him. standing out as the guides to other self altogether unworthy to be men in their religious opinions, at ranked with those who did. Mauleast there was no lack of enthusiasm rice, Stanley, Jowett, and his own to dare the emprise. There was pow- earnest Protestant Froude, hower enough also to command success ever widely they may separate up to a certain point, but beyond that themselves from Dr Newman now,
in the camp.
will never charge him with being a think, must by this time feel to liar and the wilful teacher of lies. be ridiculous. They know how much he gave up To sum up all. We rise from to become what he is — not the the study of this controversy, moral certainty of attaining to an if controversy it deserve to be English mitre alone, for that, in his called, painfully alive to the fact eyes, would have been of small that both disputants are in the value, but a position the most ex- wrong. Dr Newman is wrong, bealted to which an ambitious mind cause his principles are indefencould aspire - the acknowledged sible ab initio, however perfectly headship of religious thought in they agree one with another. His this country, the championship of error, however, is that of a great the Church of England and its mind, which, like vaulting ambitraditions; whom multitudes of tion, has "overleaped its sell, and earnest men trusted and follow- fallen on the other side;" whereas ed, and many more, even while Mr Kingsley is wrong, morally as they fought against him, felt them- well as logically. He makes charges selves constrained to treat with which he cannot prove, and, too obdelicacy and respect. It remained stinate or too ill-advised frankly to for a sciolist in the region of withdraw them, he repeats them thought to throw his handful of in a manner which offends the mud upon a character which he tastes even of his own admirers. could not understand. Be it so. We think, therefore, of the one
Fools rush in where angels fear with sorrow not unmixed with to tread ;” and so the Cambridge respect, as of a fallen angel, but Professor, while he has furnished an angel still ; of the other, as a to the object of his attention an misguided clever man, who, havopportunity of putting forth a con- ing got beyond his depth, disfession of faith which will be read covers that he cannot swim, and wherever the English language is strikes out wildly, as those are apt understood, places himself in a posi- to do who find themselves in dan-. tion which even he, we should ger of going to the bottom.
IF M'Caskey was actually startled rotten to the
core ; by the vicinity in which he sud- but I said, Better to die in the denly found himself to the persons street à cheval than behind the within the room, he was even more arras on one's knees. Have it out struck by the tone of the voice with the scoundrels, and let the which now met his ear.
best man win—that was the advice Norman Maitland who spoke, and I gave. Ask Caraffa, ask Filanhe recognised him at once. Pacing gieri, ask Acton, if I did not althe large room in its length, he ways say, 'If the King is not ready passed before the windows quite to do as much for his crown as close to where M'Caskey stood- the humblest peasant would for his so close, indeed, that he could cabin, let him abdicate at once.” mark the agitation on his features, She murmured something, and and note the convulsive twitchings he interrupted her with, “Because that shook his cheek.
I never did-never would- and The other occupant of the room never will trust to priestcraft. All was a lady; but M'Caskey could the intrigues of the Jesuits, all the only see the heavy folds of her dark craft of the whole College of Carvelvet dress as she sat apart, and so dinals, will not bring back confidistant that he could not hear her dence in the monarchy. But why voice.
do I talk of these things to you ? “So, then, it comes to this !” Go back and ask him to see me. said Maitland, stopping in his Say that I have many things to tell walk and facing where she sat : him ; say”—and here the mockery “I have made this wearisome of his voice became conspicuousjourney for nothing ! Would it " that I would wish much to have not have been as easy to say he his advice on certain points.-And would not see me? It was no why not?” cried he aloud to somepleasure to me to travel some hun- thing she said ; dred miles and be told at the end nobility no charm for him ? Well, of it I had come for nothing." then, I am ready to strike a bar
She murmured something inau- gain with him. I owe Caffarelli dible to M'Caskey, but to which two hundred and eighty thousand Maitland quickly answered, “I francs, which I mean to pay, if I know all that; but why not let me take to the highway to do it. hear this from his own lips, and Hush! don't interrupt me.
I am let him hear what I can reply to it? not asking he should pay this for He will tell me of the vast sums I me—all I want is, that he will enhave squandered and the heavy able me to sell that villa which he debts I have contracted ; and í gave me some years ago beyond would tell him that in following Caserta. Yes, the “Torricella ;' I his rash counsels I have dissipated know all that it was a royal preyears that would have won me dis- sent. It never had the more value tinction in any land of Europe." in my eyes for that; and perhaps
Again she spoke; but before the day is not very distant when the she uttered many words he broke right to it may be disputed. Let suddenly in with, “No, no, no! him make out my title, such as it is, ten thousand times. No! I so that I can sell it. There are Jews knew the monarchy was rotten who will surely take it at one-half
66 has my