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The following are the general rules for the division of words into syllables.
1. A single consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter syllable; as, de-light, bri-dal, resource; except the letter x: as, ex-ist, ex-amine; and except likewise words compounded: as, up-on, un-even, dis-ease.
2. Two consonants proper to begin a word must not be separated: as, fa-ble, sti-fle. But when they come between two vowels, and are such as cannot begin a word, they must be divided: as, ut-most, un-der, in-sect, er-ror, cof-fin.
3. When three consonants meet in the middle of a word, if they can begin a word, and the preceding vowel is pronounced long, they are not to be separated: as, de-throne, de-stroy. But when the vowel of the preceding syllable is pronounced short, one of the consonants always belongs to that syllable: as, dis-tract, disprove, dis-train.
-4. When three or four consonants, which are not proper to begin a syllable, meet between two vowels, such of them as can begin a syllable belong to the latter, the rest to the former syllable: as, ab-stain, com-plete, em-broil, trans-gress, dap-ple, con-strain, hand-some, parch-ment.
5. Two vowels, not being a diphthong, must be divided into separate syllables: as, cru-el, de-ni-al, so-ci-oty.
6. Compounded words must be traced into the simple words of which they are composed: as, ice-house, glowworm,
over-power, never-the-less. 7. Grammatical, and other particular terminations, are generally separated: as, teach-est, teach-eth, teaching, teach-er, contend-est, great-er, wretch-ed, goodness, free-dom, false-hood.
Words are articulate sounds, used by common consent, as signs of our ideas.
A word of one syllable is termed a monosyllable; a word of two syllables a dissyllable; a word of three syllables a trisyllable; and a word of four or more syllables a polysyllable.
All words are either primitive, or derivative.
A primitive word is that which cannot be reduced to any simple word in the language; as, man, good, child.
A derivative word is that which may be reduced to another word in English of greater simplicity; as, manful, goodness, contentment.
There are many words which, though compounds in other languages, are primitives in English; as, circumspect, delude, complicate, convent.
QUESTIONS. What is a syllable? What are words? What are words of three syllables called? What are those of more than three syllables called ?-How are words divided ?What is a primitive word? What is a derivative?
Is the word wisdom primitive or derivative?-By which rule for the division of syllables is this word divided?
Is the word freedom primitive or derivative?-By which rule for the division of syllables is this word divided ?-Similar questions may be answered respecting other words
LESSON III. The spelling of English words is attended with much uncertainty and perplexity, and can be acquired only by diligent attention to the spelling-book and dictionary. We present the following, however, as the general rules which, in spelling primitive and derivative words, have been most commonly received:
1. Monosyllables ending with f, 1, or s, preceded by à single vowel, double the final consonant: as, staff, mill, pass, &c. The only exceptions are, of, if, as, is, has, was, yes, his, this, us, and thus.
2. Monosyllables ending with any consonant but fel or s, and preceded by a single vowel, never double the final consonant; excepting add, ebb, butt, egg, odd, err, inn, bunn, purr, and buzz.
3. Words ending with y, preceded by a consonant
form the plurals of nouns, the persons of verbs, verbal nouns, past participles, comparatives, and superlatives, by changing y into i; as spy, spies; I carry, thou carriest; he carrieth, or carries; carrier, carried; happy, happier, happiest.
The present participle in ing, retains the y, that i may not be doubled; as carry, carrying; bury, burying, &c.
But y preceded by a vowel, in such instances as the above, is not changed; as boy, boys, I cloy, he cloys, cloyed, &c. except in lay, pay, and say; from which are formed, laid, paid, and said; and their compounds, unlaid, unpaid, unsaid, &c,
4. Words ending with y, preceded by a consonant, upon assuming an additional syllable beginning with a consonant, commonly change y into i; as happy, happily, happiness. But when y is preceded by a vowel, it is very rarely changed in the additional syllable: as coy, coyly; boy, boyish, boyhood; annoy, annoyer, annoyance; joy, joyless, joyful,
5. Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syk lable, ending with a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, double that consonant, when they take another syllable beginning with a vowel; as wit, witty; thin, thinnish; to abet, an abettor; to begin, a beginner.
But if a diphthong precedes, or the accent is on the preceding syllable, the consonant remains single; as to toil, toiling; to offer, an offering; maid, maiden, &c.
6. Words ending with any double letter but l, and taking ness, less, ly, or ful, after them, preserve the letter double: as harmlessness, carelessness, carelessly, stifly, successful, distressful, &c. But those words which end with double l, and take ness, less, ly, or ful, after them, generally omit one l: as fulness, skilless, fully, skil. ful, &c.
7. Ness, less, ly, and ful, added to words ending with silent e, do not cut it off; as paleness, guileless, closely peaceful; except in a few words; as duly, truly, awful.
8. Ment, added to words ending with silent e, generally preserves the e from elision: as, abatement, chastisement, incitement, &c.
Like other terminations, ment changes y into i, when preceded by a consonant: as, accompany, ac
accompaniment; merry, inerriment.
9. Able and ible, when incorporated into words ending with silent e, almost always cut it off: as, blame, blamable; cure, curable; sense, sensible, &c. : but if c org soft comes before e in the original word, the e is then preserved in words compounded with able: as, change, changeable; peace, peaceable, &c.
10. Whon ing or ish is added to words ending with silent, the e is almost universally omitted: as, place, placing; lodge, lodging; slave, slavish; prude, prudish; blue, bluish; white, whitish.
11. Compounded words are generally spelled in the same manner as the simple words of which they are formed; as, glasshouse, skylight, thereby, hereafter. Many words ending with double l, are exceptions to this rule: as, already, welfare, wilful, fulfil: and also the words wherever, christmas, lammas, &c.
The orthography of a great number of English words, is far from being uniform, even amongst writers of distinction. Thus,
honour and honor, inquire and enquire, negotiate and negociate, control and controul, expense and expence, allege and attedge, surprise and surprize, complete and compleat, connexion and connection, abridgment and abridgement, judgment and judgement, acknowledgment and acknowledgement, and many other orthographical variations, are to be met with in the best modern public cations.
Inaccuracies to be corrected by the preceding Rules.
“Jacob worshiped his Creator, leaning on the top off his staf »
“A cart is a chariot of war.
“In the names of druggs and plants, the mistake of a word may endanger life.”
Many a trapp is laid to ensnare the feet of youth " “We should subject our fancys to the government of reason.
“ It is a great blessing to have a sound mind, uninfluenced by fancyful humours."
“When we bring the lawmaker into contempt, we have in effect annuled his laws." “By defering repentance, we accumulate sorrows."
Restlesness of mind disqualifies us for the performance of duty."
“ The arrows of calumny fall harmlesly at the feet of virtue."
" The road to the blisful regions is as open to the peasant as to the king.”
“The silent stranger stood amazod to see
Contempt of wealth, and willful poverty." “A Judicious arrangment of studies facilitates imaprovment."
“ The object seems very desireable to us."
“We are made serviceable to others, as well as to ourselves."
“ Our natural and involuntary defects of body are not chargable to us.”
“ These people salute one another, by touching the top of their forheads."
be hurtfull to others by example, as well as by personal abuse.”
«Knaveish tricks should meet with a severe reproof." “A sprigg of myrtle.”
is green," “ The cheasecake is very rich.” “We prefer beefstake to venison.” “ Please, sir, to make me a penn.' “Will you lend me your black led pencil.” 6. His behavior was very obligeing.” “You appear uncommonly chearful.” " I think his conduct highly blamable.”
Every season has its peculiar beautys." “ Alexander was a most skilful horsman."
“ Nor undelightful is the ceaseless humm