Engineering materials and their applications
This edition of the classic text/reference book has been updated and revised to provide balanced coverage of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites. The first five chapters assess the different structures of metals, ceramics and polymers and how stress and temperature affect them. Demonstrates how to optimize a material's structure by using equilibrium data (phase diagrams) and nonequilibrium conditions, especially precipitation hardening. Discusses the structures, characteristics and applications of the important materials in each field. Considers topics common to all materials—corrosion and oxidation, failure analysis, processing of electrical and magnetic materials, materials selection and specification. Contains special chapters on advanced and large volume engineering materials plus abundant examples and problems.
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3.14 Fatigue A survey of the broken parts in any automobile scrap yard reveals
that the majority failed at stresses below the yield strength. This is a result not of
imperfections in the material but of the phenomenon called fatigue. If a bar of
Crack-nucleating slip Surfai Stage II fatigue crack Notch or scratch Internal defect
Fig. 13.13 Schematic of the various ways in which fatigue cracks initiate and grow
crack lengthens, the direction of growth becomes independent of grain ...
Ductile (cup-cone) Brittle (cleavage) (a) Tensile overload Origin Origin (6) Brittle
fracture Origin Rapid ^propagation- failure Origin (c) Fatigue Crack path
Secondary cracking, branching found in some specimens Intergranular cracking (
d ) ...
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The Problem of Materials Selection and Development
ceramics polymers 4 1 3 The structure of materials 5 1 4 Bonding
Metallic Structures The Unit Cell
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