Page images
PDF
EPUB

D

Of the Syntax of the Noun.

Pages
Of several nouns joined by copulatives

119.
Of nouns connected by disjunctives.
Of nouns of multitude.

ib.
Of one noun governing another in the possessive case.

141:
of the Syntax of he Pronoun.
Of pronouns agreeing with their antecedents:

123
Of the relative being nominative to the verb

127
Of the relative preceded by nominatives of different persons 129..
Of the Syntax of the Adjective
Of the Syntax of he Verb.

Of the vero's agreement with the nominative case. 115:
Of verbs active requiring the objective case.

146
Of one verb governing another in the infinitive mood. 1485
Of verbs related in point of time.

149
Of the Syntax of the Parviciple.

153
Of the rules respecting Adverbs.
Of the position of Adverbs.

156
Of two negatives.

158
Of the yntax of Prepositions.

159
Of the Synias of Conjunctions.

Of conjunctions connecting the same moods,tenses & cases. 162

Of conjunctions requiring the subjunctive mood, &c. 103
Of the Syntax of Interjections.

127
Of Comparisons by the Conjunction than or as.

172
Directions respecting the Ellipsis.

173
General Rule of Syntax.

177
Directions for Parsing

180
PART IV.-PROSODY.
Chap 1. Of Pronunciation, 1887 Sect. 4. Of pauses.

198
Sect 1, Of accent.

i ib
5. Of tones.

201
2. Of quantity

192||Shap. Of Versification. 202
3. Of emphasis

184

OF PUNCTUATION...
Chap. 1. Of the Comma 23- ap 5. Of the Dash, Notes.
Ch. 2. Of the Semicolon. 221 of Interrogation. Exclama-
Cnap. 3. Of the Colon. 222 tion, Capitals, &c. 223
Chap. 4. Of the Period, 2.311

APPENDIX.
Rules and observations for pomoting perspicuity ind accuracy in writings
PARTIZOj perspicuity and securacy of expression, with respect to

single words and păruses
Chap. 1. Of Purity

230
Chap 2 Che Propriety. ib
PART II of perspicuity and accuracy of expression; with respect 10

the colis!ruction of sentences.
Chap: 1 Of <he Clearness of a Sentence.

240
Chrip.2. Of t'ie Úpiiy of-a Sentence.

245
Clap 3 Of the Strength of a sentence.

249
Chup. 4 Of the Figuras of Speech.

284-
AIRDRESS TO YOUNG STUDENT SOM

781

236

| hap 3. Of Precision

ENGLISH GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing the English language with proprietj.

It is divided into four parts, viz. ORTHOGRAPHY, ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX, and PROSODY.

This division may be rendered more intelligible to the student, by observing, in other words, that Grammar treats, first, of the form and sound of the letters, the combination of letters into syllables, and syllables into words ; secondly, of the different sorts of words, their various modifica:ions, and their derivation ; thirdly, of the union and right order of words in the formation of a sentence ; and lastly, of the just pronunciation, and poetical construction of sentences.

PART I.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER 1. Of the LETTERS. Section 1. Of ihe nature of the letters, and of a perfect

alphabet. Orthography teaches the nature and powers of letters, and the just method of spelling words,

A letter is the first principle, or least part, of a word.

The letters of the English language, called the English alphabet, are twenty-six in number.

These letters are the representatives of certain articulate sounds, the elements of the language. An articulate sound, is the sound of the human voice, formed by the organs of speech.

Еe

e

The following is a list of the Roman, Italic, and Old

English Characters.
Roman. Italic. Old English. Name.
Cap. Small.
Cap. Small.

Cap. Small.
A
a

αι.
B b
Bb

b bee..,
C
С

see.
D. d
D d

dee. E

ee. F f

ef. G

jee. H h H h

aitch. I i I i

i, or eye.. J ] J

jay. К. k

我在 kay. L 1

L 7 L 1 M m

nin em. N n

n

en. 0 P р

pee. Q

cue.
q
r
R r

ar. S

ess.
t
T t

tee. U u

11 U

u or your V V

v

vee.
W 20
m w

double u.. х

eks. х Y у Y y

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

el.

м т. N n

[ocr errors]

S 8

[ocr errors]

U 2
V

[ocr errors]

W W

X XC

wy. 2

zed: Z Z

多多

A perfect alphabet of the English language, and, indeed, of every other language, would contain a number of letters, precisely equal to the number of simple articulate sounds belonging to the language. Every simple sound would have its distinct character ; and that character be the repo resentative of no other sound. But this is far from being the state of the English alphabet. It has more original sounds than distinct significant letters; and, consequently, some of these letters are made to represent, not one sound alone, but several sounds. This will appear by reflecting, that the sounds signified by the united letters th, sh, ng, are elementary, and have no single appropriate characters, in our alphabet ; and that the letters e and u represent the different sounds heard in hat, hale, hall ; and in but, bull, mule.

To explain this subject more fully to the learners, we shall set down the characters made use of to represent all the elementary articulate sounds of our language, as nearly in the manner and order of the present English alphabet, as the design of the subject will admit; and shall annex to each character the syllable or word, which contains its proper and distinct sound. And here it will be proper to begin with the vowels. Letters denoting the

Words containing the simple sounds.

simple sounds. as heard in

fate.

fall. in

fat. in

far. in

me.

met. in

pine. in

pin: in

no. in

not. in

moye. in

mule.

tub. in

bull.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

By this list it appears, that there are in the English languaze fourteen simple vowel sounds : but as i and 1, when pronounced long, may be considered as diphthongs, or diphthongal vowels, our language, strictly speaking, contains but twelve simple vowel sounds; to represent which we have only five distinct characters or letters. Ifa in far, is the same specific sound as a in fat ; and u in bull, the same as o in move, which is the opinion of some grammarians ; then there are but ten original vowel sounds in the English language.

The following list denotes the sounds of the consonants, being in number twenty-two. Letters denoting the

Words containing the
simple sounds.

simple sounds.
b
as heard in

bay, tub.
d

in

day, sad. f

in

off, for. in

van, love. g

in

egg, go. in

hop, ho. k

in

kill, oak.
I

in
in

my, mum.
in

no, on. P

in

pin, map.

rap, cry:
in
in

zed, buzz.
t

in

top, mat.

in у

in

ye, yes. ng

in

ing, sing. sh

in

shy, ash. th

in

thin, thick. th

in

hen, them. zh

in

leasure.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

as

as

lap, all.

n

[ocr errors]

r

as

in

[ocr errors]

so, lass.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

wo, will.

as

a:

as

as

Some grammarians suppose h to mark only an aspiration, or breathing ; but it appears to be a distinct sound, and formed in a particular manner, by the organs of speech.

Encyclopædia Britannica.

« PreviousContinue »