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Of the Syntax of the Noun.
Of the vero's agreement with the nominative case. 115:
Of conjunctions connecting the same moods,tenses & cases. 162
Of conjunctions requiring the subjunctive mood, &c. 103
192||Shap. Of Versification. 202
single words and păruses
the colis!ruction of sentences.
| hap 3. Of Precision
ENGLISH GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing the English language with proprietj.
It is divided into four parts, viz. ORTHOGRAPHY, ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX, and PROSODY.
This division may be rendered more intelligible to the student, by observing, in other words, that Grammar treats, first, of the form and sound of the letters, the combination of letters into syllables, and syllables into words ; secondly, of the different sorts of words, their various modifica:ions, and their derivation ; thirdly, of the union and right order of words in the formation of a sentence ; and lastly, of the just pronunciation, and poetical construction of sentences.
CHAPTER 1. Of the LETTERS. Section 1. Of ihe nature of the letters, and of a perfect
alphabet. Orthography teaches the nature and powers of letters, and the just method of spelling words,
A letter is the first principle, or least part, of a word.
The letters of the English language, called the English alphabet, are twenty-six in number.
These letters are the representatives of certain articulate sounds, the elements of the language. An articulate sound, is the sound of the human voice, formed by the organs of speech.
The following is a list of the Roman, Italic, and Old
ee. F f
jee. H h H h
aitch. I i I i
i, or eye.. J ] J
jay. К. k
我在 kay. L 1
L 7 L 1 M m
nin em. N n
en. 0 P р
tee. U u
u or your V V
double u.. х
eks. х Y у Y y
м т. N n
zed: Z Z
A perfect alphabet of the English language, and, indeed, of every other language, would contain a number of letters, precisely equal to the number of simple articulate sounds belonging to the language. Every simple sound would have its distinct character ; and that character be the repo resentative of no other sound. But this is far from being the state of the English alphabet. It has more original sounds than distinct significant letters; and, consequently, some of these letters are made to represent, not one sound alone, but several sounds. This will appear by reflecting, that the sounds signified by the united letters th, sh, ng, are elementary, and have no single appropriate characters, in our alphabet ; and that the letters e and u represent the different sounds heard in hat, hale, hall ; and in but, bull, mule.
To explain this subject more fully to the learners, we shall set down the characters made use of to represent all the elementary articulate sounds of our language, as nearly in the manner and order of the present English alphabet, as the design of the subject will admit; and shall annex to each character the syllable or word, which contains its proper and distinct sound. And here it will be proper to begin with the vowels. Letters denoting the
Words containing the simple sounds.
simple sounds. as heard in
By this list it appears, that there are in the English languaze fourteen simple vowel sounds : but as i and 1, when pronounced long, may be considered as diphthongs, or diphthongal vowels, our language, strictly speaking, contains but twelve simple vowel sounds; to represent which we have only five distinct characters or letters. Ifa in far, is the same specific sound as a in fat ; and u in bull, the same as o in move, which is the opinion of some grammarians ; then there are but ten original vowel sounds in the English language.
The following list denotes the sounds of the consonants, being in number twenty-two. Letters denoting the
Words containing the
day, sad. f
off, for. in
van, love. g
egg, go. in
hop, ho. k
no, on. P
ye, yes. ng
ing, sing. sh
shy, ash. th
thin, thick. th
hen, them. zh
Some grammarians suppose h to mark only an aspiration, or breathing ; but it appears to be a distinct sound, and formed in a particular manner, by the organs of speech.