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49. QUESTION (IV. March) answered by A COBBLER. Let L represent the place where the ships met,

B B and C the ports they failed from, LD the differ: C D ence of latitude, LB, LC the distances run by the two thips, and which, consequently, are to each other as 5 to 3, or as i to vo which put = m : make p= 260 (not 250, as was printed in the ques. tion) the sum of the three sides, LB, LC, and BC; a=LD,=64, and x=LB. Then, becaule 1 : m :: *: mx, =LC; and, by the question, x+mx+ V x2-a? + V mox?-a? = p. Hence, w *2-a2 + m2x2 - a2 = p-a-mx; and, by fquaring both ddes of the equation, and making proper re L duction, V *-ax m282-a? => p?+a’-px-pmx+mx2. Put b= 102+a?, and n=p+pm, and again, fquaring both sides, we obtain 2mnxi-x2xa-a_m2-12ta'm2 + 12 +2bm

2bnx 62 - at abm+2bnx=62-a+; or x?

X x2 +

which in numbers is xl-448,92179487** +63160x =2843208,33, Sóc. Now, in order to resolve this equation, it may be considered that as LD is = 64, LC cannot be Jels than 64; and, as LC is to LB as 3 to 5, LB (x) cannot be less than 1063.. Again, as LB cannot be less than 1063, and LD is 64, DB cannot be less than W 1063-6412, = 85,4: confequently, LB. (x) cannot be so great as 110,6. Having thus got LB within such narrrow limits, we readily find x=106,83, by the common methods of approximation : LC, the distance run by the other thip, is, therefore, = 64,1; and the distance of the ports 89,07 miles. The course of one of them is S. 53° 12' W. and of the other 5. 3° 12' E.

Q. E. I,

2mn

2 mn

2 m n

MATHEMATICAL QUESTIONS.

64. QUESTION I. by NUMERICUS, What three numbers are those, the sum of which is a cube number; and if this cube be increased by half the product of the two least, the sum will then be a square number: moreover, the sum of the squares of the two least is equal to the square of the greatest.

65. Question II. by R. M*. Given the base of a plane triangle, and the sum of the sides and perpendicular, to determine the triangle when the vertical angle is a maximum,

66. QUESTION III. by Mr. Thomas Moss. If upon any indefinite right line, DQ, two circles be described whose diameters DB, DC, are in

F any given ratio to each other, and two other circles be described upon another indefinite D right line, dq, whose diameters,

B

Q do and dc are likewise in the fame given ratio of DB to DC; and if from the points B and b, as centers, two other circles be

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RAS

* This gentleman is requested to send answers to such questions as yet remain with the editor, as the motives for proposing those queltions do not appear to him without them.

so described as to eut the peripheries of the two larger

F circles in G and g, equidiftant from the points D and d: then if any two lines be drawn from the two points D, d, cutting the peripheries of the cir

q cles in R, S, E, and F, and in r, s, e, and f; and so as to make DS = ds: I say that the corresponding chords DR, dr, and SF, sf; as also the distances RS, 75, and RF, rf, intercepted by the two peripheries will be respectively equal to each other.

2 The answers to these questions may be directed (poft-paid) to Mr. Baldwin, in Paternoster-row, London, before the ist of October.

BIOGRAPHY.
THE LIFE OF CHARLES CHURCHILL.
HARLES CHURCHILL.*, an

an the next day, he brought his exercise eminent fatiric poet, was born finished in such a manner, that he in Vine-ftreet, in the parish of St. received the public thanks of the John's, Westminster, in the year 1731. masters of the school. This instance His father, who was a very respectable of his sensibility, and of the applause clergyman, was curate and lecturer of that resulted from it, was not followed the parish, and was pofietsed, besides, by a complete reformation of conduct.. of a living in the country. Young The vivacity of his imagination, and Charles, as might be expected, from the dissipation of his ternper, still prethe vicinity of his situation, received vented his walking regularly forward his grammatical education at Weft- in the trammels of a scholastic educaminster schio!; in which he soon di- tion. When, therefore, he was sent by ftinguished himself so far, as to make his father to the University of Oxford, his tutors fengible that he was a lad of he was refufcd an admittance into confiderable abilities. His application, that illuftrious seat of literature, upon however, as is too frequently the case account of his want oi a proper skill in with youths of lively parts, by no the learned languages. This, no doubt, means kept pace with his natural ta was a great mortification to himself, lents; so that the chief character he as well as a fevere disappointment to a obtained was, that he was a boy who worthy parent. Churchill, in the subcould do well if he would. One day, fequent parts of his life, often menhaving been enjoined to make an exer tioned his repulse at Oxford; and the cise, he failed in bringing it at the time following turn was given to it by appointed; for which reason his inaiter himself and his friends. He and they not only chastised him with some fe- frequently afferted, that he could have Ferity, but even charged himn with answered the college examination had stupidity. The last reproach made a he thought proper; but that he fo ftrong impression upon Charles much despised the trilling, queftions Churchill's mind, and the fear of which were proposed to him, that, shame wrought an effect which the instead of returning suitable replies, he fear of stripes could not produce. On only launched out into satirical reLOND. MAG. July, 1784.

D

flections + This life is ab tracted from that inserted in the new volume of the Biographia Britannica.

fections on the abilities of the gentle- having taken a little house, he applied man whose office it was to make the himself to the duties of his station with trial of his literary improvements. If alliduity and chearfulness. His bethis was really the truth of the case, haviour gained him the love and esteem Mr. Churchill's conduct, to say the of his parishioners; and his sermons, leait of it, was highly imprudent. though fomewhat raised above the level Whoever wishes to receive the benefit of his audience, were commended and of an university education must comply followed. What chiefly disturbed him with the customary forms of admiffion; was the finallness of his income, and it would be perfectly ridiculous which would, indeed, have been too for a young man to have it in his own narrow for the fupport of a family, power to prescribe in what mode he eren where a much greater degree of ihould be examined, previously to his economy was exercised than was fuitmatriculation. Churchill's rejection able to Mr. Churchill's natural dispofrom Oxford will supply one very pro- fition. To supply, therefore, the bable reason for the severity with deficiency of his scanty falary, he which, in the course of his writings, entered into a branch of trade, which he hath fometimes treated that famous he hoped might raise him to compeseminary.

tence, and, perhaps, to riches; but After this event, Mr. Churchill which, in fact, involved him in debts continued to prosecute his ftudies at that long involved him in perplexity Westminster school; and there can be no and trouble. The business in which cause to doubt, but that he would soon he engaged was that of keeping a have been esteemed properly qualified cyder-warehouse, with a view of vendfor an entrance into one of our learned ing that commodity in the different universities, if his views of this kind parts of the neighbouring country. A had not been prevented by an act of man of genius and a poet was but ill imprudence, which had a considerable qualified for such an undertaking: Mr. effect upon the colour of his future life. Churchill could not descend to the paWhen he was little more than seven- tience and frugality which are necessary teen years of age, he contracted an in the common course of merchandise, intimacy with a young lady in the where small gains are to be quietly neighbourhood, which sprang up into expected, and carefully accumulated. a warm affection, and was followed by A kind of rural bankruptcy was, therea hafty marriage. This, like many fore, the consequence of the attempt. others, was a match which began in The ill success of Mr. Churchill's pallion and ended in disguit. 'Their trading scheme brought him back to regard, however, for each other, which London, and his father foon after in its origin was mutual and fincere, dying, he succeeded him as curate and was preserved in its purity and ardour lecturer in the parish of St. John's. for a number of years. In the fe- The emoluments of his situation not queftered life which Mr. Churchill was amounting to a full hundred pounds a now obliged to lead, he made such a year, in order to improve his finances, progress in literature, and suitained fo he undertook to teach young ladies good a character, that, notwithitanding to read and write English with bis want of an university education, propriety and correctness, and was he was thought worthy of being ad- engaged for this purpose in the board. mitted into holy orders, at the usual ing-school of Mrs. Dennis, a governess, age of obtaining them, and accordingly who had the honour of being one of was ordained by Dr. Sherlock, ar that the firit introducers of a laudable time Bishop of London. The first custom, which hath since been adopted preierment he received in the church in many of the reputable seminaries of was a very trifling cne, being only a female education. Mr. Churchill confwall curacy of thirty pounds a-year, ducted himself in his new employment 1: Wales. To this remote part of the with all the decorum becoming his kingdo:n he carried his wife, and, clerical profeflion. Still, however, his

method

method of living bore no proportion the orchestra. From this place he. to his income; so that he contracted a thought that he could bett difcern the variety jf debts, which he was totally real workings of the passions in the incapable of paying; and a jail, the players, or the artifices which they subterror of indigent genius, seemed ready itituted in the room of genuine nature to close upon his miseries. From and feeling. As Mr. Churchill was this wretched situation he was relieved thus qualified, by judgement and expeby the benevolent interposition of Dr. rience, for delineating the excellencies Lloyd, the second master of West- and defects of the actors, fo the vigour minfter-school, and father of Robert of his fancy, and the strength of his Lloyd, the poet. The Doctor under- conceptions, enabled him to do it in took to treat with Churchill's creditors, the most lively colours. In the month and succeeded in engaging them to of March 1761, the “ Rusciad" appearconsent to a composition of five mil. ed. The first edition stole as it were lings in the pound. In an instance into the world, being very little adverwhich fell under the knowledge of the tised, and published without a name. writer of the present article, as an A second impression was foon called executor and a guardian, Mr.Churchill, for, in the title page of which the when he had obtained money by his author asserted his claim to his own perpublications, voluntarily came, and formance. Scarcely ever was there an paid the full amount of the original instance of a poet's rifing fo suddenly debt. It is highly probable, from this from the most perfect obscurity to the unsolicited and unexpected act of cqui- greatest celebrity. To this the players table retribution, that his conduct was themselves contributed more than any the same in some other cases.

other set of men, They ran about the The time now approached for Mr. town like so many stricken deer; and Churchill's appearing in the world as while they strove to extract the arrow an author. Hitherto nothing had come from the wound, by communicating the

om him in this character, though he knowledge of it to their friends, spread was known among his acquaintance to abroad more and more the fame of the be a man of a very vigorous imagina- piece. It was pleasant enough to obtion, and a strong understanding; and ferve how artfully some of them, who though he was in the habits of intimacy were, in fact, the most hurt, pretended with Thornton, Colman, and Lloyd, to be unaffected by the injury done to who had already begun to make a con- themselves, but to feel extremely for the siderable figure in the republic of obloquy thrown upon others. " Why letters. With the last of these gentle- (exclaimed one of these disinterested men he was connected in the ties of persons) fhould this man attack Mr. the closeft friendship. Mr. Lloyd had Havard? I am not concerned at all printed a poem, entitled the Actor, for myself; but what has poor Billy which met with a very favourable re- Havard done that he must be treated to ception from the public, and justly cruelly?"-“ And pray (replied a genprocured him a confiderable degree of tleman who was present at this artireputation. By the success of his ficial declaration of benevolence) what friend, Mr. Churchill is supposed to has Mr. Havard done too, that he have been stimulated (how truly we cannot bear his misfortunes as well as, know not) to exert his poetical talents another?" Whilst the actors, in difupon a subject of a similar kind, though ferent ways, expressed their resentment, more appropriated and personal. The the public enjoyed their distress. The theme he pitched upon was admirably Rofciad was regarded, in general, as a suited to his genius and his taste. He pleasant and reasonable retaliation for had long been a frequenter of the the mirth which the itage had contitheatre, and had bestowed inceffant nually excited, by the representation attention

stage representation. of the follies and frailties of mankind, The scene of his observations was The poem was not wholly employed asually the firit row of the pit, next to in facire. Mr. Garrick was commended

on

in the highest terms of applaufe; and ingly, in a short time he published his the various and peculiar excellencies Apology; addressed to the Critical of Mrs. Pritchard, Mrs. Cibber, and Reviewers." Whatever reasons these Mrs. Clive were celebrated with equal gentlemen had to be dissatisfied with warinth and justice. Excepting Mr. the poem, the players themselves were Garrick, there was not a single man, not so much offended as they had been amungit the players of that period, with the Rofciad. The author had, who in the first impression entirely indeed, treated the profession of acting escaped the poet's satirical lath. Those with great contempt; and had painted, who were the most eager in expresling in the Itrongest colours, the meanness their anger had only the misfortune and difiress of itinerant companies, and of being treated with greater severity the unhappy shifts to which they are in fubfequent editions. In this respect occasionally reduced. But all this the Mr. Churchill has been blamed by London actors regarded as a trifling some writers; and it has been said, injury, compared with the satire which that the Rofciad was not always be- had been directed against their personal nefited by the alterations which it faults. It was, likewise, no small conreceived." Perhaps there is little foun- folation to them, that their master, the dation for this assertion: however mighty Roscius himself, had not wholly that may be, it is certain that its ex- been spared: for Mr. Garrick was cellence enabled it firmly to maintain certainly aimed at in the following its ground againt all oppofition. lines: Though various painphlets and poems

“ Let the vain tyrant sit amidft his guards, were published againit it in vindication His puny green-room wits, and venal bards, of the players, they were so poorly Who midny wimble at the puppet's frown, written, that they only served to swell Aniiia pilou te freedom lose their own; Mr. Churchill's triumph.

In spite oi lleor - Mude laws, and new-made kings, The Critical Reviewers happened to

The tree-horn mufe with lib’ral fpirit tings.

Bow donni, se files; beiore thefe idoisiall; be peculiarly unfortunate in the account geniu it op to them who've none ai ail; which they gave of the Rosciad. In Ni'er wil I Hatter, cringe, or bend the kit,

To thole who, laves to all, are ilaves to me.' speaking of the first impreífion of it, they ascribed it, with some degree of conti The manager

felt all the force of dence, to VIr. Lloyd; and though they these farcaitic, Itrokes, and was would not abfolu ely pretend to affert that tremely unhappy that he should have it was tolely written by him, they ven- provoked so irritable and so powerful tured to aförm, that it was the produc- a writer. Accordingly, he wrote a tion, jointly or separately, of the new long letter to Churchill

, which, besides Triumvira e of Wits, who never let comprehending an apology for himself an opportunity flip of singing their and ile players, was suli of encomiums own praises. The Triun irate here upon his uncommon rein of poetry, referred to contified of Thornton, and contained a kind of deprecation of Colman, and Lloyd. The miliake, his future wrath. A friend, to whom howerer, if it had been delivered in Mr. Garrick shewed the letter, enless ofrenive terms, was pardcnable, as tirely disapproved of it; and informed the author had got fet his name to the him that the author of the Rosciad, performance. When he asiert:d his who was a man of quick discernment claim to the work, the critics ach now- and undaunted spirit, would not think ledged their error, but did not co it the better of him for his humiliations with a very good grace, or, at lealt, in and fatteries.

manner as was fatisfactory to Mr. Churchill being now become so Mr. Church ... Bufides his not being greatly celebrated, and having, at the well pleased with the account wrich same time, procured a large number of had been given if his poen, he wifi.ed enemies, it was natural that researches to add fomething further on the subject should be made into his fituation, conof the Ruiciad, and so justify the atiаck nections, and character; and upon he had n ade on the players. Accord- enquiry it was found that he was not

remarkable

Let

ex

such a

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