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About this time, Mri Coxe also communi- tried upon men in France; and in the Yural Cated an account of the fame kind. He took des Scirvans, Dr. Denis published, in the lane an old mongrel cur all over-run with the mange, year 1667, an account of two experiments which and provided himself at the same time with a had beer. m.de upon the human subject. The young healthy land spaniel. As well as he firit was upon a boy, betwee. tiiteen and fixteen could judge, he transfused from the disealed as years oil, who had been deprived of his fentes much blood as the found dog loft. The result by a fever two months before. This lad was was, that in the latter no visible alteration was aimoit constantly sleeping. Before the operation made; but the former was in a short time per about three ounces of blood, which was ex. fectly cured thereby. Mr. Coxe concludes, tremely black, were taken from 'rim; and, as therefore, that a sudden and considerable eva well as could be gueired, about eight ounces of cuation of blood is the proper and effectual re• the arterial blood of a lamb vcre afterwards inmedy for the mange.
fused into him. The only accident which he Mr. Denis, too, in this same year, transfused had aiter the operation was a light bleeding at from three caives into three dogs. Anter the the note: he was soon afterwards reitored to operation the latter ate as well as they had perfect health. The second experiment was done before.
performed upon a chairman, who, for a trifling The same year Mr. Denis transfufed the blood ium, consented to undergo the operation. He of four wethers into a horse cventy-six years old. was 45 years of age. About ten ounces ot blood From the operation the horse derived new vi were taken from him, and as much was transgour, and more than ordinary appetite for his fused into him from the crural artery of a lamb. food. Mr. Denis's experiments were made in This man went with his companions after the France.
operation; boiled the lanıb whole blood had Similar experiments were made also in Italy. been thrown into him; and carried his chair On the 8th of May, at S. Calluni's, in Bologna, again as usual. The next day he came and rethe blood of one lamb was transtuled into ano quefied he might be made use of again, whenther. Before the operation a considerable quan ever they thould be inclined to repeat the expetity of blood was taken from the lamb who was riment. to receive. Nearly as much, it supposed, The other experiment which was made at was thrown into him during the operation as Paris the next year did not terminate to fahe had loft before it. Immediately after the vorably. The case was as follows:-Anthony operation, the lamb into whom the blood had Mauroy, 34 years old, had been for several been introduced went about the room without years in a ftate of insanity. He was sometimes the appearance of feebleness. This lamb did 10 turious, that it was found necessary to contine not die till the 5th of January ensuing.
him, leit he thould do harm. He had lucid inSome time afterwards another experiment of tervals; and his fits were periodical. Blecuing, this kind was made by an Italian philofopher. bathing, and other means had been tried in This gentleman transtuled from a lanb into a vain. It was at latt retölved upnn, when he spaniel, which was thirteen years old, and was was in one of his tits, in which he ran naked quite deaf. It is said, that this dog, who could about the streets of Paris, and was without sleep hardly walk before this experiment was made for several months, to make trial of transtulion, upon him, not only was able to go about with which was accordingly perforined upon him on the other dogs after the operation, but, what the 19th of December, 1668, in the presence will appear astonishing, that he was thereby, of a great number of phyficians and Surgeons. after a while, cured of his deafness.
About ten vunces of blood were taken from his Besides these which we have already related, arm, and abo:it tive or fix ounces (for more several other experiments were made upon the could not be thrown into him, on account of same kind of animals, both by pe: Sons of our the crowd of speciators) of blood were transtufed own and other countries: but, having already into his veile's from those of a cait. The man mentioned those which to us appeared to be the felt, it is said, a great heat all along his arm. molt curious, we think it would be tedious and He fainted a little; but took soine food foon unnecessary to enter into a particular detail of after the operation. He continued to be rather the reit: we shall, therefore, immediately pro- ftupid and drowsy; and palled the night as ceed to take notice of the trials which were ufuai in finging and whistling. A few days made of this practice upon men.
after, the operation was repeated again. Only Soon after Sir Edmund King had described three ounces of blood were taken from his arm; the method of transfuling blood into the veins and it was conjectured that he reived more of men (in the Philosophical Transactions) he than a pint of blood from a call. Immediately had an opportunity of putting into practice this as ihe blood entered his veins, he felt, as letore, method, in conjunction with Dr. Richard Lower, a beat along his arm. Vis pulic rote, aid his upon one Arthur Coga, in London. They per- face was covered with sweat. Ile complained formed the operation on the 23d of November, ot a pain in his loins, and of a great tickness at 1667. For the space of two minutes the ar his domach; and said that he ihould be suito. terial blood of a young freep was conveyed into cated if they diu not let híın looft. He v mithe veins of this man. At the end of two mi ted, ani telt a pretting desire to go to tool. nutes the operation was stopped, at the request The vomiting continued two hours; after which of the man. It was conceiured that this man time he slept; not waking kill the next morning, received about nine or fin ounces of the theep's when he cumplained of pairs and we ziineis blood. He continued weil after the operation. which affected the whole of his limbs.
He was Before this, however, transfusion had been calm, and thewed much presence of mind. lle Lond. Mag. Dec. 1784.
hilled a chamber-pot with urine as black as it will abundantly show. We shall not take noe ehere had been loot in it. The next morning tice in this place intending to do that in anohe filled another chamber-pot with urinegi al ther) of the probable difference between the most as black as that which he had made on the blood of man and other animals, and of the preceding day. He bled largely from the nose; effects which, it there is any real difference, on this account he was iet blood from the arm. mutt neceilarily take place upon the introduc. In a few days afterwards every bad fymptum tion of the blood of a theep into the vetiels of a disappeared, and he became perfectly jentible, inan; we shall only obferver that fuch expectaHe remained fentible for two montis, at the tions must have proceeded from miitaken idea expiration of which time, by excess in living, concerning the animal cconomy. The blod and by other irregularities, he was thrown into and other fuids of the body were at that time a very dangerous tever. Whilft he was in this fuppoled to be the seat of diseases. A beter tate, at the eameit entreatics of his wife, trans understanding of the nature of diseases, and of tution was attempted a third time upon him. the operation of the cutes by which they are The man died the next day. It was suspected produced, has now convinced pathologists that that the wife had given him poison; for the the folids are the general seat of difcale. It is hatened. lis funeral as much as the could, to tolly, therefore, to expect that the injection of prevent his body from being opened
a quantity of blood into the vellels of one who, With the like ill success was transfusion per as they speak, has not blood enough, will re. formed upon a Swiss nobleman, who laboured move the cause of that penury of blood. The under an ardent fever. He was du spaired of organs of fanguification may be impaired, obo by his physicians. One of them, however, re itructed, and Jiteated in a thousand ways; and collecting an aphorism of Hippocrates, in which ii 10, it is not likely that transfusion will set it is tuid, that in doubtful cales doubitul reine them aright--- Another notion was entertained dics are to be tried, proposed transfusion. It ftill more absurd than this, namely that if a 1.29 was accordingly tried. The exchange of blood had bad blood, all that the physician need dog in this operation was very incontiderable: the would be to let this bad blood run out, and to patient did not appear to be in the least hurt by Supply its place with better blood from soms it, but, on the contrary, was thought w te ochor animal!----Would not tlie same cause fomewhat better for it. A fecond transfusion which occidio:ied the vitiation or corruption of # 18 therefore attempted. During the operation the man's own blood equally vitiate and cor the patient died, a victim y lays Boerhaave, to rupt the healthy blood poured into him from medical curiotityr
fome other animal-If the itomach is unable By thele two failures the practice of trans to digent, it is in vain to attempt to nouriih the fusion was brought into difrepute : physicians body by forcing food into it. It is enough to and philofophers would doubtleis have ceated of mention their expectations concerning the proshemselves to have made further experiments longation of life, to ihow the ab'urdity of them, upon it; left, however, this should not be the It disposition or temper depended much upon case, it was publicly prohibited by royal edict; the state of the blood, Mr. Boyle might have and from that time to the present it has been Itulon.bly supposed that transtution would have anott univertally forgotten.
produced a change therein. As this, however, slaving now given fome history of the expe is not the cale, no-fuch, alteration can be a. iments of transfufion upon brutes and upon pected.. men; it may not be amils to confider, in the We are now to confidct, whetier transfuhur, Bext place, what were the capectations which, in any cases, can be a tate and a falutary opeo at the time of its introduction, were formed
and in doing this we thould oblerie, from fuch a practice; with what reaton such ex that all freth matter, which, in a confiderable pectations were entertained; and whether trans quantity, is carried into the blood along the fution, in any cales, can be a lutc und falutary courle of the abtorbents in the alimentary pale operation.
Lage, does occation fome commotion when it As inventors are ever ready to cry up the value mixes with the blood. this, then, be trus and importance of their discoveries; so they by of that which enters the blood in this natural whom traistution was first practised did not way; how much greates a disturbance muit til 10 promile many and the greatest advan there be occafioned by the immediate injection Lages therctrom. It was believed that by this of even the blandet Huids into the reifelst means diseases might be cured, fince the phy- Perhaps, indeed, the advocates for transtutions lician would have it this pruer, from this ope may say, that whatever be the disturbances sation, to give more blood to tho! who had not which arise from the injection of other fluids, enough, and to give better to those who had no luch mischict can be produed by the inbad blood : nay, fome were even perfuaded, troduction, in tuch a maner, of the blood of 2 that a perpetual vigour and you'r, a fort of ce lwing animal. This blood, they will say, re. feitial immortality might by the means be quires no concoction, no asimilation, being pofHecured to mankind. Mr. Boyle himlelf, as letfcd of the fame nature and qualities wint that Quld appear trom fome queries of his which with which it is mixed. If they do say this were pubtihed in the Philofophical Transactions, they must be thought to go to too great a length. jmagined some change mighi be wrought in the Can they alert that the blood of a theep or a Dugotitions of animals in this manner.
calt has the very fame qualities with the blood Fyfe were the expectations which were en of a man, when the former fced upon herba kertaines son transtulog. Wido what little only, and the latter chiefly upon ficth : CerKalou they were formed the favorect suficrion binly whers is a difference, and the cases of
transfusion upon men of which we have a clear been wrought upon brutes by transfusion, we and circumitantial relation prove it sufficientlyin Mall leave our readers to form an opinion for The fickness of the stomach, the pains in the themselves; conlelling, at the same time, that Hoins, the sense of suffocation, the vomiting, they almoit surpass our belief. the drowsiness, the bloody urine (for the black After an attentive confideration of the whole ness of it must have been owing to the blood of this subject, we think we may, with justice, which was mixed with it) all afford the moit make this remark: That transfution, when incontrovertible proofs of a commotion in the practised upon healthy perfons, in Sparing quancirculation in particular, and of a violent dis tity, may not, in some initaoces, give rite to turbance in the system at large. But in the much harm; but that danger must always attend anstance of Arthur Coga, and in the two cases the trial of it upon those who are of a weak celated by Dr. Denis, no such effects it will be conftitution, or who are in a Itate of disease Said, followed. Why it so happened it is easy so true is the oblervation of the celebrated Boer. to perceive The quantity of blood thrown into haave-Quemque mortalem fibi ipfi fanguinem him was too inconsiderable to cause any ma- Juum parare debere, neque pelle mutuo ab ali? ferial injury. It was conjectured, indeed, that qununque aut bomine, aui animali, accipere nine or ten ounces pafled into him in the space That cvery person thould prepare for himself of two minutes; perhaps, however, he might his own blood, and that no períor can (with not actually receive the same number of safety] reciprocally exchange his blood with any drachms. The same may be observed of the other creature, whether it be man or brute. other two cases related by Dr. Denis. As to the Although it will be seen from these reflecexperiments which were made upon aniinals; tions that we are of opinion that little good from their success we cannot protend to inter can ever, and that much mischief may oiten be that transfusion will ia like manner prove at produced by transfusion: yet do we nevertheless deaft harmless, if not beneficial when practised think that it is a matter which should be inapon men. Besides, it is to be noticed, that quired into ftill further by physicians: and in some instances the animals were purposely hence, therefore, we cannot but be sensible destroyed very soon after the operation; and that the author of the pamphlet, entitled Some therefore it remains a matter of uncertainty new Hints, &c. is to be commended for having how long these, had they been left to themselves, now brought it befose the contideration of the would have survived the operation. Of the public. Surprising cures which have been said to have
ON THE USE OF THE DRY VOMIT, AND THE SUCCESS AT
TENDING THE METHOD OF TREATING INTERMITTENTS RECOMMEND.
spoonful water. The is ditions on Poijans, I have made cursory rected to drink nothing after it. In a mention in the last) of two remedies thort time after swallowing it, fickness I have often found of great use, and to is produced, and a quartity, of bile is the beneficial effects of which I wish to generally thrown up. To take off the bear more ample testimony. And I fickness, a spoonful of brandy, or of conceive it would be rendering service any spirit, may then be given, and if both to the faculty and to the com that thould come up, a second. Taunity, if those of the profesion who « This was a favourite medicine of have had frequent occafions of observ- the lake Dr. Maryatt, whose practice, to ing the good effects of any particular judge from the account he himself gave medicine, or mode of treatment, world of it, appears more cmpirical than raembrace such opportunities as may offer tional "Iown, I entertained very great to communicate and recommend it to doubts of the propriety of giving in the public; especially, when such re common two grains and an half of medy, or practice, is not generally emetic tartar and the fame quantity of adopted, which I believe is the case blue vitriol, as a vonit, having feen with those of which I am now speaking. several instances of a violent vomiting
“ The dry vomit is a composition of produced by a much smaller quantity equal parts of tart. emet. and vitr. of tartar emetic alone; particularly in
A quantity of it is mixed at the present Earl of Arran, to whom, once, and the dose of this mixture whea at Naples, I gave a fingle grain commonly given is five graias, on an (prepared at Apothecarica-hall, in lon
3 L 2
don) which operated to a degree ex- cesiion of the hot fit, and to increase tremely alarming and diitreiling, I the dose of it, yet the great relief it did not choose, therefore, to make a occafions, and the gradual diminution trial of the dry romit, 'till I was as- in the strength of the fits, are strong sured by a gentleman of great ingenuity inducements to persevere in the use of and veracity, who had given it to fe- the remedy, untill they are completely veral, and even taken it himfulf, that remored.' That this will be the conits operation was far from severe. Since sequence of such perseverance, eren then I have given it in a variety of where no other medicine is exhibited, cafes, and it has acted fo mildly, that experience will evince. I very rarely I scarcely recollect an instance where it indeed have had occafion to recur to was complained of as too violent; but the bark for the cure of agues, though I have met with several, wherein five I fometimes give it after the complaint grains were not suficient to produce is removed, with a view to strengthen any efect, and where I have found it the habit. Indeed, we receive into cur neceffiry to increase the dose to seven Infirmary numbers of poor Irish, reor eight grains of the mixture. The turning home from the fens after harreason why the compound acts more veft, labouring a long time under agues, mildly than one of the ingredients having begged their way, half-farved, would do alone-whether fome decom- and greatly debilitated. In such, a position takes place on their being com cure is not to be looked for, untill they bined together-it is not easy to ascer are a little recruited, by enjoying, for tain. But it is suficient for medical some time, the necessaries and conpurposes to know, that it is not only veniencies of life, to which they have a safe but even a mild vomit.
long been strangers. It is easy to ob“ The nature of the disease, or the serve the gradual good efects produced state of the stomach, may often render in thein by better living only. To it more eligible to give a dry vomit. persons in this fituation, 'I sometimes It is the stimulus to the whole fyftem give, with advantage, a glass of spirits from the action of vomiting which, in a little before the paroxysm. I remany cases, we would wish to excite. member, many years ago, seeing a In this respect, and in evacuating bile, German foon cure himself of an obitithe dry vomit answers the fame purpose nate ague, by drinking every morning as sea-sickness. Drinking largely of a glass of brandy, in which a small warm water after taking a vomit, as quantity of myrrh, aloes, and saffron was is commonly practised, besides leflening infused, and it proved equally successthese effects, tends to leave the stomach ful in fome cases of long standing, in a relaxed ftate, and thus may fre- where I recommended a trial of it after quently do as much harm as it was the bark has failed. To the spirit, expected to do good.
however, I conclude the success is " A practice of which I have great chiefly to be attributed. I have also reason to fpeak well, and which I should given twenty drops of tinet. thebaic. wish also to recommend to the notice before the cold fit, and the same quanof others who may not have experienced tity during the hot one, in some cases, it, is that of the ingenious Dr. Lind in with evident advantage. the cure of intermittents:-the giving “ There is one circumstance more I a vomit an hour before the cold fit, and should wish to mention, now I am upon a fufficient dose of tinét. thebaic. half this subject. It is a case of accidental an hour after the fit commences. In recovery, in one of the e poer Irishmany intermittents of long continuance, men, whom I had taken into the Inboth tertiansand quartans, I have known firmary, labouring under an ague of this method succeed to put a ftop to long continuance, anafárca, extreme them the very first time it was made debility, and emaciation.
His comuse of. But though this will often not plexion was very fallow, and his belly be the case, and it will be necellary to prominent; the effect, as appeared on repeat the tinit. thebaic. on each ac- examination, of enlarged and indurated
iscera: a frequent consequence of the mistake, as I thought it probable hc gues amongst those who live in low, might thence receive essential benefit: narshy fituations, to which they give and the event justified my opinion, for he name of the ague-cake, and which, the man soon got quite well. An inogether with the subsequent ill health, fance this, which might be adduced as is often wrongfully attributed to the a further proof of the good effects of ise of bark. I tried the above, and mercurials in cases of obstructed vifcera; other means for some time, without though such was the degree of weakiny permanent good effect. The agueness of this patient, that, however deindeed would stop for a while, and fireable a mercurial treatment might the patient seemed to acquire a little have appeared, few practitioners would strength, but he soon relapsed. At have ventured to advise it for a man fo length it happened that "mercurial extremely reduced: and though the inunctions, directed foranother patient, event was favourable, it would fcarcely were, by miitake, given to him. He be a sufficient justincation for adopting had used them only a few times, when, so hazardous a practice, in similar cirto my great surprize, Ifound him in a cumstances." salivation. I was the less diflatisfied at
THE MISCE L L AN Y.
BY PERCIVAL STOCK DALE*.
I nity, affert, that in my literary pro- be insensible, if I did not anticipate ductions I have always been ardent and more quarter. Whatever my abilities open in the cause of truth. To this are, they will rank them in the class conduet, as an author, I have invaria- they deserve. For my uniform oppobly adhered, without any indulgence fition to fuperftition and despotism, to the narrow pafions and prejudices they will give me the laurel of the of mankind; and, as I know, by pain, good citizen; and if they cannot preful experience, with too little regard lent me with the palm of prudence, to my own private interest and emolu- they will applaud my fincerity. ment. Therefore, as I have been un Í intend, in this little pamphlet, to fortunate, from the selfish and imita- offer to the public my impartial and tive part of the world, from the great dispaflionate thoughts on Misanthropy; majority of mankind, I expect no to endeavour to redeem the penetrating, eiteem. From their eyes, even the experienced, and ingenuous judge of most transcendent merit is always con human nature, from that precipitate cealed, by the impenetrable and bale- or artful obloquy which hath fo often ful shade of adversity. Such is the ob- been thrown upon him : accurately to duracy of their hearts, and the confi- distinguish between acrimonious decladence of their language, that they will mation and philofophical decision; give no credit to the unprotected and which, in disculling the present subpersecuted scholar, for being an honeft ject, have been moit perversely conand zealous advocate for useful and founded by two very different forts of momentous truth.
men: by the worthless; who were na. But from the noble-minded few, from turally enemies to a theory which
moted In our Magazine for April luft, p. 315, we gave an account of three poems by this ingenious and spirited writer. In that article we mentioned, with commendation, a' Sermon on Self Knowleage, and an Emay on Misanthropy, and we are now happy that it is in our power to lay the lacker Coupulation before our readtrs, who, we doubt not, will receive entertainmeni trom it.