Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation
"Devices enormously smaller than before will remodel engineering, chemistry, medicine, and computer technology. How can we understand machines that are so small? Nanosystems covers it all: power and strength, friction and wear, thermal noise and quantum uncertainty. This is the book for starting the next century of engineering." - Marvin Minsky
MIT Science magazine calls Eric Drexler "Mr. Nanotechnology." For years, Drexler has stirred controversy by declaring that molecular nanotechnology will bring a sweeping technological revolution - delivering tremendous advances in miniaturization, materials, computers, and manufacturing of all kinds. Now, he's written a detailed, top-to-bottom analysis of molecular machinery - how to design it, how to analyze it, and how to build it. Nanosystems is the first scientifically detailed description of developments that will revolutionize most of the industrial processes and products currently in use.
This groundbreaking work draws on physics and chemistry to establish basic concepts and analytical tools. The book then describes nanomechanical components, devices, and systems, including parallel computers able to execute 1020 instructions per second and desktop molecular manufacturing systems able to make such products. Via chemical and biochemical techniques, proximal probe instruments, and software for computer-aided molecular design, the book charts a path from present laboratory capabilities to advanced molecular manufacturing. Bringing together physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering, and computer science, Nanosystems provides an indispensable introduction to the emerging field of molecular nanotechnology.
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Figures 3.6 and 3.7 include a comparison of the magnitude of electrostatic and
non- bonded interactions for C— F, C— Cl, and C— Br groups, calculated using
atom- centered fractional charges. e. Nonbonded interactions. Corresponding to
each atom type (Table 3.1) is a set of parameters describing the attractive and
repulsive forces experienced by pairs of uncharged, nonbonded atoms.
Physicists usually apply the term "van der Waals force" to the attractive
component alone, that is, ...
evdw 2.48xl05exp -12.5- - -1.924 - V 'vdw 0 / v 'vdw 0 ) ^vdw = £vdwl 2.48xl05exp
| -12.5^ - |-1.924| ^ (3.8) where r is the distance between the atoms, the
parameter evdw for the interaction between atoms 1 and 2 equals (evdwl + £
vdw2)/2, and rvdw0 equals rvdwl + rvdw2. This function has a minimum of -evdw
at r = rvdw0. The forces between atoms bonded to a common atom (i.e., 1-3
interactions) are included not in the non- bonded interaction energy, but in the
bond angle-bending ...
The Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, although time honored, has a repulsive
interaction that lacks theoretical motivation and is unrealistically steep. The
Maitland and Smith potential (Maitland et al., 1981), although excellent in the low
-energy range, is again too steep in the deep repulsive regime. The MM2
expression for nonbonded interactions has two parameters: the equilibrium
separation of two atoms and the depth of the well at that point. Well depths
commonly are on the order of ...
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109 Dampers detents clutches and ratchets
1094 Ratchets and reversibility
10102 Differences between nanomachines and macromachines
130 other sections not shown