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Arminius at Leyden University.

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Europe, with an army of ten thou. I lous deliverance. The stout burghers sand picked veterans, entered the had held out four months, and were provinces, and inaugurated a reign starving by hundreds, but would not of terror. The infamous * Blood surrender. The bold sea-rovers of Council' was established. Count Zealand determined to break down Egmont, the hero of St. Quentin, the dykes, let in the ocean, and float Count Horn, and others, though their ships up to the walls of the good Catholics, were arrested, im- city. 'Go up to the tower, ye prisoned, and beheaded. Executions beggars,' was the taunting cry of took place by wholesale. Why the Spaniard, ‘go up to the tower, should there be stint or delay, and tell us if ye can see the ocean selection or trial? The ban of ex- coming over dry land to your relief.' communication had fallen upon the After long delay the ocean came. whole land. A sentence of the The dykes were opened, a succession Holy Office, in 1568, condemned to of tempests swept the waters over death as heretics all the inhabitants of the land, the fleet sailed to within the Netherlands, except a few persons two hundred yards of the city, and specially named. Alva boasted that the foe fled in amazement or perished he had caused eighteen thousand in the flood. In commemoration of six hundred persons to be executed this heroic defence and relief, a during the six years of his govern- university was founded in the city ment. He had made a desert, but by the Prince of Orange. It was a he could not call it peace.

far more worthy memorial of gratiThe people of the Netherlands tude to God than a pile of blazing would not be pacified by the sword. faggots consuming for beresy the But they were slow to unite their bodies of the living and the bones forces and organize the revolution. of the dead. William the Silent, Prince of Orange, Upon the opening of the university, ancestor of our own William the the year after the massacre of OudeThird, exhausted his private re- water, Arminius came to Leyden. sources and drew upon his friends in He did not come alone. From Germany in vain. The levies of Marburg he had gone to Rotterdam, undisciplined mercenaries hastily where Taffin, the French chaplain collected in the field were unequal to the Prince of Orange, and Bert, to the stern crisis. They were an exiled pastor from Amsterdam, scattered before the terrible energy delighted with his talents and of the Spaniard like chaff before scholarship, received him with the storm. The league of the nobles hospitality; and the son of the accomplished but little. But their | Dutch pastor, recalled from England name became a watchword. Some for the purpose, accompanied him one stigmatized them as 'beggars.' to the university. The friendship They accepted the designation, and thus formed continued through life. for more than a century afterwards The funeral oration, in memory of ‘Long live the beggars,' was the Arminius, delivered in the hall of rallying, cry in many a battle on the university, thirty-three years land and sea.

The beggars of the afterwards, was delivered by Peter sea' laid the foundation-stone of Bert. Arminius pursued his the Dutch republic, established studies at Leyden with extrafreedom at home, obtained the ordinary ardour and success. He mastery of the ocean, and girdled penetrated into almost every dethe world with a zone of depend- partment of learning, and left noencies, comprising some of the thing unfinished that he took in fairest portions of the earth. It was hand. He gave his days and nights to these brave seamen that the first to theology and philosophy, but he successes of the revolution were found time for the Hebrew and due. When Leyden was besieged a classical tongues, was very proficient second time, they affected a marvel. ) in the mathematics, and wrote Latin

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verses with the vigour and fancy of a a venal offence. Not so thought poet. He was soon the first man of the faculty of Geneva. The Ramean the college. Whether for accurate logic was in their estimation a deadly scholarship, for sound judgment, heresy. The teaching of that system for correct taste, or for unremitting by a student in his own rooms to a industry, he was distinguished above private class was a scandal and an his fellows. The professors com impertinence. The professor of mended his diligence and applauded philosophy, a Spaniard by birth and his gifts, and the students appealed à violent champion of Aristotle, to him in every difficulty as an waxed hot against the Dutch scholar. adviser and a friend. The orphan By his efforts an edict was passed of Oudewater, it was clear, gave interdicting Arminius from teaching promise of future eminence.

at Geneva in public or in private the After six years' residence at Leyden, heresy of the logic of Ramus. Placed he was recommended to the notice under the ban of this edict, he was of the merchants' guild of Amster, driven from the university. Was dam by the burgomasters and there not a prophecy here of the ministers of that city. The cor- coming theological strife ? poration received the application Arminius removed to Basle. The favourably. The necessary funds atmosphere of exclusiveness and for the completion of his studies at intolerance that seemed to pervade some foreign university were granted Geneva was exchanged for a more out of the revenues of the guild, and congenial clime. Golden opinions Arminius, in an autograph document, again were gained, and unexpected pledged himself to the service of laurels won. It was the custom for the city, and to the acceptance of the more advanced students, during no pastoral charge without the con. the autumnal recess, to deliver sent of the burgomasters.

public lectures. Arminius, without In 1582 he set out for Geneva. reluctance, undertook this task. He Calvin had now passed away, and selected as his theme the Epistle Beza taught in his stead. He was to the Romans. His expositions at that time expounding the Epistle were marked by unusual ability and to the Romans. Arminius at once success. The professor of sacred commenced attendance upon the literature occasionally honoured him lectures of this learned and eloquert with his attendance and thanked divine. Here he met John Uiten- him for his efforts. Other distincbogardt, of Utrecht, afterwards so

tions were

also conferred upon warmly to befriend him. Here he him. In public disputations when heard the sermons and lectures of a serious objection was raised, Anthony Faye and Charles Perrot. or a knotty question brought forHere, also, in a very short time, as ward, the professor would someif future events were already cast times single out Arminius from ing their shadows upon his path, the crowd, and say, he experienced his first rebuff in Hollander answer for me.' On his free inquiry. The logic and phi- leaving Basle to return to Geneva losophy of Aristotle reigned supreme he was furnished with a written at Geneva. Arminius had learned testimonal, commending his piety to question the infallibility of the and his 'gift of the spirit of disStagirite, and he publicly defended cernment. Moreover, the Faculty and privately taught the newer of Theology proposed to award system of Ramus. Aristotle was a him the diploma of Doctor at the heathen, and Luther had strongly public expense. Arminius, who was denounced him; Ramus a then but three and twenty years of Christian and a Protestant, and had age, modestly declined the proffered perished ten years before in the title as an honour he was yet too St. Bartholomew massacre. To young to wear. prefer Ramus to Aristotle was surely Either from change of feeling at

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Geneva, or change of policy on the view was to attend the lectures of part of Arminius, the opposition Zarabella, a celebrated professor towards him gradually softened down of philosophy, at the university of on his return. Beza thought highly Padua. He went in the company of him, and wrote a letter of com. and at the intreaty of a college mendation in reply to inquiries friend from whom during the tour from Amsterdam. The venerable he was inseparable. They had all divine says:—. Both his acquire things common, sharing food and ments in learning and his manner lodgings, and reading together from of life have been so approved by us a Greek Testament and a Hebrew that we form the highest hopes re. Psalter. The journey was of service specting him.' 'For the Lord has to Arminius. At Rome he saw, he conferred upon him, among other said, the mystery of iniquity fouler endowments, a happy genius for and more detestable than he had clearly perceiving the nature of ever dreamed. All that he had things and forming a correct judg- heard or read seemed trifles comment upon them, which, if it be hence- pared with what he witnessed with forward brought under the govern- his own eyes. But he purchased ance of piety, of which he shows his knowledge of Antichrist at a himself most studious, will un- great risk. His talents and reputadoubtedly cause his powerful genius, tion had already made him the mark after it has been matured by years of envy. Detraction and insinuation and confirmed by his acquaintance now renewed their wretched work. with things, to produce a rich and It was whispered that he had abmost abundant harvest.' Beza jured the orthodox religion, that he scarcely imagined, when he penned had become intimate with Cardinal these words, that the fruits of his Bellarmine, that he had frequented pupil's genius would be a system the assemblies of the Jesuits, that of theology which would deny the he had bowed down before the Pope favourite tenets of Calvin, and divide and even kissed his shoe. These the religious world for ages. were baseless and absurd calumnies,

The studies of Arminius at Geneva but they gained currency at Amisterwere continued for four years with dam. The burgomasters were disbut one serious interruption. In pleased. Arminius was summoned 1586 he made an excursion into to return, and his student life ab. Italy. The chief object he had in ruptly closed.

Obituary.

HANNAH West.--As years advance and the sorrowing heart longs for and experience deepens, the chastened some humble and abiding memento memories of the past become an im. of the loved ones gone before. Το portant element in the education of aid in this ministry of love to the our moral nature. Ripened affection surviving members of a once happy delights to linger and revel amid and unbroken family is the design of the hallowed scenes and fragrant the following brief memoirs :recollections of departed hours. The Hannah West was one of those dear old home of childhood and worthy, conscientious, and strongyouth, the sacred names of father minded women found in many and mother, brother and sister, the homes of the village life of old chamber of sickness, the wasted England. I have often admired form, the nightly watching, the her stately mien and portly bearing, dying moan, the parting hour, the and imagined that she was a fair opening grave, all pass in review, representative of those females

woman.

heroines, who in Puritan times bore | counsel, effort, and purpose, they faithful testimony to the kingship soon rose to a position of comfort of Christ, the authority of the and respectability. Secular prosBible, and the rights of conscience. perity advanced with the growing Little Hallam, a small hamlet about responsibilities of home. Their a mile south of Ilkeston, was the children grew up as olive plants birthplace of this good Christian round about their table. They

She was born on the 12th were a family whom the Lord of August, 1784. Adam Taylor greatly blessed. The swelling tide records in history (vol. 2, p. 156) of domestic bliss now reached its that in this same year the meeting utmost limit, and the retreating house at Little Hallam was taken wave bore on its heaving breast the down, and a more substantial and husband and the father into the commodious one erected in its

ocean of the great unseen. And stead at Ilkeston.' The little girl, now the stricken one begins to think, Hannah Twells, it may be was the who can tell; it may be the Lord child of parents, who in that age of has been preparing me for a time ecclesiastical domination and cor- like this, and brushing away her ruption, met for pure spiritual tears she entered on the cares and worship in the small unpretending toils of widowhood with a brave sanctuary, where in the fervour and and trusting heart, feeling the inpiety of his youth, John Goddard spiration of that animating promise: held forth the word of life, with God is a husband to the widow and a power and success. It would seem father to the fatherless in his holy that the family followed the ark of habitation. How nobly she did her God to its resting place, for before duty in this crisis of her social life fifteen summers had passed, the the children who still survive can village maiden had yielded to the testify; for they praise her in the drawings of a Saviour's love; sub. walks of life, and in the gates of mitted to the initiatory rite of the Zion. For their welfare as occuNew Testament church ; joined the pants of earth and as heirs of communion of saints at Ilkeston; immortality she laboured

and and commenced the pilgrim's journey prayed night and day with tears, to the skies. A pupil in the school and as one by one they rose to of Christ thus early, her mind grew virgin or manly prime, entered the in the highest wisdom, her character fold of the Good Shepherd, or took was shaped after the holiest models, their place in the great thoroughand her long life became an epistle fares of life, she rejoiced over them of commendation in honour of her with a widowed mother's joy. Once Lord. Called by the progress of and again have I been in that family time and its events to take her group,andwhen in thosequietevening position in the social economy of hours, we have sung one of the songs life, the subject of this notice re- of Zion, and the voice of prayer has solved that the counsels of holy writ gone up to the holy hills, I have should guide her steps. William felt, is not this the church in the Barnes West and Hannah Twells house ? is it not the gate of heaven? were one in faith, in baptism, and When first I knew our venerated in fellowship, anterior to the forma- friend she was descending the vale tion of the connubial bond. Unlike of life. Planted early in the garden many young men and maidens in of the Lord she grew like a cedar these days who appear to be wise in Lebanon, and brought forth fruit above what is written, they preceeded in old age. For the long space on that sound philosophic maxim : of more than three score years this How can two walk together except 'wise virgin' trimmed her lamp, they be agreed? The benedictions of walked with God, honoured the heaven fell in rich abundance on the Saviour, and prepared for heaven. pious and loving pair. United in To such an one death could have Obituary-George Small West.

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no terror. The conviction with her ful mind, and illustrated in the was deep and strong, the growth daily life of his revered father and of years, I know whom I have be- mother. From a child he knew the liered, and am persuaded that He is Holy Scriptures, and grew

up able to keep that which I have come attached to the house of God. Not, mitted unto Him against that day. however, until his nineteenth year Her dying chamber was the vesti. did the blessed ministries of bule of heaven. Calm and serene, home culture, Sabbath service, and her everlasting hopes being founded heavenly grace, mature the spiritual on the rock of ages, she breathed her germ in the soul, win the homage spirit away on May 2nd, 1861, of the heart, and command the in the 76th year of her age.

obedience of life. Constrained by It will be evident from the above the love of Christ, the son of many sketch that the late Mrs. West was prayers now gave himself to the characterized by many virtues. She Lord, and his service to the church. was a person of high integrity, He was baptized by the late Rev. sound religious principle, and blame- W. Hogg, in the year 1833. Henceless life. Not forgetful to entertain forth the Sunday-school was his strangers, and thereby ministering chosen field of labour. His energy, to 'angels unawares,' she received constancy, and perseverance were a 'prophet in the name of a prophet regarded with admiration, and by and obtained a prophet's reward.' the request of the teachers he filled A ministerial brother in his letter the office of superintendent for many to a daughter of the deceased thus years. Eminently gifted with a writes :. Your mother was one of musical taste, the service of song the best women I ever met, so far in the house of the Lord became his as I knew. My intercourse with favourite study and ever fresh her was confined to what could be delight. In the free and generous maintained in her dwelling. I have use of this seraphic talent, he a lively recollection of her kindness rendered efficient aid, not only to to me when a student, and of her the church and congregation of devotion to the interests of the which he was a member, but also church at that time. O for more to other sections of the Christian of such mothers in Israel.' Thus world. In process of time the was our venerated friend highly worthy character and exemplary esteemed by all who knew her, and deportment of late brother it will be long ere her name, virtues, pointed him out as a fit and proper and memory are forgotten. Blessed person to take office in the church. are the dead who die in the Lord. They Elected to the honoured position of rest from their labours, and their works deacon he discharged its duties with do follow them.

C. S. H. fidelity and zeal. The assiduity with

which he wrought in the varied de. partments of his master's employ, se

cured for him the unique designation GEORGE SMALL WEST, son of the of the man that lives at the chapel.' above, also departed this life Janu. From six years observation and in. ary 8th, 1862, in the 48th year of tercourse I can honestly testify that

Blessed with wise and my lamented friend was one of that pious parents, traces of their ju- select order in the church who dicious training marked his char- devote themselves heart and soul acter and course through life. to the work of the Lord. His morals were nurtured, his habits that his wisdom and prudence were formed, and his tastes corrected sometimes at fault, is simply to say amid the genial influences of a that he was mortal. Taking a full well ordered home. The principles and charitable survey of his life of integrity, industry, virtue, and and character, my verdict is : He piety were instilled into his youth. was a good and faithful servant of

our

his age.

To say

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