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contrary the one to the other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.”

3. We are taught always to pray for pardon, “ Forgive us our debts :" but sinless creatures need no pardons. This clearly shews, that all fin, and so come short of perfect obedience.

4. Lastly, Consider the spirituality of the law, and its extent, with human weakness, and you will see this clearly. And hence it is that perfectionists are strangers to the spirituality of the law: for if they rightly viewed it, they would be far from dreaming of having attained to perfection, which never a mere man did in this life.

Object. Noah was perfect, Gen. vi. 9. * Job perfe&, Job

*. In order to illustrate the character of Noah as a righteous and perfect man, and to thew the fignification of these epithets, it will not be improper to subjoin the following note, taken from a manuscript work of the author's, which he left prepared for the press, and has been esteemed by proper judges, both at home and abroad, a work of very great learning and merit, but has not yet been printed, entitled, A new translation of the first twenty-three chapters of Genesis, with notes explanatory and critical, according to the principles of the Hebrew accentuation, as delivered in his treatise entitled, Tra&atus ftigmologicus Hebræo-Biblicus, printed at Amsterdam in 1738.

Gen. vi. 9. “ Noah was a just man, and perfect in his generations." “ As for Noah ; [being] a righteous man, he was found in his generations :

9. d. sound ; (sound) in his generations. A found man is a man of integrity and Godly fimplicity, wholly for God, entire in his obedience, keeping himself uncorrupted and unspotted from the world, in which he lives. Such a man was Noah ; and such he was, in both the generations wherein he lived, before and after the food. Thus his chararacter consists of two parts : he was a found man, and preserved to the end in his soundness. And both these are traced to their common {pring-head, namely, his righteous state. Being righteous by faith, a justified man ; he was a found man, in true holiness of heart and life ; and a preserving man : Agreeable to which is that of the prophet, Hab. ii.

“ The righteous (i. e. by) his faith, shall live.” Tzaddik, an adjective righteous, a substantive a righteous one, is derived from the root Txadak, in the form Pihel (Txiddek), as appears by the Dagefch forte in it. Tzadak (Kal) is not to be reputed righteous ; that agrees not to it, chap. xxxviii. 26.: nor to do righteously; that agrees not to it, Job ix. 20. Pfal. xix. 10.: but to be righteous ; which agrees to it every where, Only it is to be observed, that being righteous is sometimes understood fimply of existing righteous, as Gen. xxxviii. 26. Psal. xix, 10.; sometimes of appearing righteous, as Job ix, 20. xiii. 18. & xl. 3. Pfal. li. 6-4th ; and this agreeable to the scripture-style in other cases, as Matth. v. 45. " That ye may be (i. e. appear to be) the children of

Father.” To fate the formal notion of righteousness fignified by this root, it is to be


i. 8. Ans. They, and all faints, have a gospel-perfection, which is a perfection of parts. They had a comparative perfection; that is, they were more holy and circumspect than many others. But that they were not legally aud abfolutely perfect, is clear from Noah's drunkenness and Job's

observed, that it is used of men, as Gen. xxxviii. 26. Job ix. 20.; of God himself, Pfal. li. 6-4th ; of his laws, Psal. xix. 10. ; and once it occurs in Niphal, Nitzdak, which, as a neuter verb of being (as Gen. i. 15.) is to become righteous, and is used of God's fanctuary, viz. Dan. vii. 14. « And it fhall become righteous, the sanctuary,” i. e. in such a state or condition as, by God's appointment, it ought to be in. From all which it appears, that the formal notion of righteousness is conformity to the law given concerning the subject, as concerning men, or the fan&uary or to the eternal idea of righteousness, in the mind of God, as in the case of God himself and his laws. Tziddek (Pih.) Hitzdik (Hiph.) are both active, and found to justify or make righteous, the action in Kal being the complement of both, as chap. viii. 14. But the difference lies here. In no form whatsoever doth this verb import a moral or real change : but in Pihel it fignifies manifeftatively, Hiphil, declaratively. In Pihel it occurs five times, and accordingly fignifies to thew one righteous, or to make appear righteous. Job xxxii. 32. “ I have desired to shew the righteous,” viz. as one shews a thing that is hid, by taking away the cover. Thus Jerusalem bewed Sodom and Samaria righteous, Ezek. xvi. 51, 52. ; namely, comparatively righteous, the holiness of Jerusalem being gone, which, while it

lafted, quite darkened them. And so the backsliding Israel, Jer. iii. 11. fbewed her own foul righteous : from the treacherous Judah, namely, as a servant running away from a master whom he hath served but a short while, thews his deserting of 'him juft, by an old servant's running away from the fame mafter at length. Thus understand the ground of Elihu's anger against Job, chap. xxxii. 2. His Shewing his soul righteous ; from God, i. e. his justifying himfelf in his grievous complaints, from the way and manner of the Lords dealing with him. Hereto agrees Hitztaddek (Hithp. the relative of Pih.), which is to pew one's self righteous, occuring only Gen. xlv. 16. What i.e. how) how ball we hew ourselves righteous ? Comp. Luke xvi. 15. & xx. 20. Thus expound Rev. xxii. 11. And the righteous, let him fbew himself righteous fill, namely, by continuing in the practice of good works. And this is the justification the apostle James writes of, to his own countrymen, (Jam. i. 1.), who, knowing the manner of their own language, were in no hazard of mistaking his meaning. Now Tzaddik, being immediately derived from Tziddek, formally denotes one appearing righteous ; the holy language hereby teaching, that whether righteoufness be imputed or inherent, it must needs fbine forth, not only from the divine appointment, but from the nature of the thing, as a light must needs give light. And to carry along this notion of the word, I write it righteous. Mean while, since there is a false as well as a true appearance of righteousness, one may see how Solomon might forbid a man to be righteous much, Eccl. vii. 16. meaning it of the mere appearance or shew of righteousness, from the notation of the word. Accordingly he adds, ibid. And do not (Tithh-haccam) make thyself wife ; for which compare Luke xx. impatience. And where is the faint whose history we have at any length in fcripture, but we see their inperfections recorded, to stain the pride of all glory?

But is it not faid, “ Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin?” 1 John iü. 9. Ans. The meaning is not, that

i. e.

20. Should feign themselves just men, which in Hebrew would be expressed by Hitztaddek, to fhew, or make one's self to appear righteous ; But since no false appearance can take place before the Lord, in all cases wherein God teftifies of one righteous, the appearance must be understood to be true, as the thing really is : and so it is in this case of Noah. Hitzdik (Hiph.) is once used intransitively, viz. Dan. xii. 3. every where else transitively. The object of it, in its intransitive use, is the conjugate noun Tz'dakah understood, as Gen. iii. 6. ; and it is q. d. to righteout righteousness, i. e. to do righteously. So the formal signification of it, agreeing thereto in its twofold use, is, to make righteous. The sense whereof, in the intransitive use, is, according to what is already remarked, to do righteously, Dan. xii 3. They that make righteous, of the many ; Those who do righteously, of the many, ver. 2. comprehending all, and divided into two forts, those that do righteously, and those that do not fo. But in the transitive use, the sense of it, is not to make righteous, by infusing of righteousness into a person, making a moral real change on him, as is manifest from Exod. xxiii. 7. I will not make righteous, an unrighteous one. Prov. xvii. 15. If. v. 23. This word is never so used. On the contrary, the only proper personal object of it is Tzaddik, a righteous one, righteous, and appearing righteous, antecedently to the action thereby fignified. Deut. xxv. 1. They shall make righteous even the righteous one.

So 1 Kings viii. 32. 2 Chron. vi. 23. And for to make righteous a righteous one. So the true sense of it is legally to make righteous, to declare or pronounce righteous ; which natively follows on the back of the action signified by Pihel, namely, sbewing righteous, and occupies the first and primary signification of Kal. And this is the justification Paul treats of. This phrase of making righteous the righteous, is used in the matter of the juftification of a finner before the Lord, Il. liii. 11. In his knowing ; make righteous a righteous one, shall my fervant ; to the many. The construction and sense of which words is, q. d. In his being known to the many ; my servant shall juftify any righteous one to them. In which few words, there is, (1.) The author or efficient cause of justification, viz. Jesus Christ the Father's fervant, fitting Judge. Comp. John v. 22. Matth. ix. 6. Acts v. 31, (2.) The object

, the ele&t, all the elect, the many for whom Christ died, ver. 12. (3.) The character in which they stand before him, one by one, to be justified, viz. righteous and appearing righteous. This is no wise inconfiftent with the justifying of the ungodly, Rom. iv. 5. ; if one confiders, (4.) How they come to be righteous before him, viz. in his knowing, i. e. by the faith of him, whereby the soul is united to Christ and thereby hath communion with him in his righteousness, and so appears righteous in the borrowed garments before the throne. And for this faith they are debtors to free grace, as well as for the righteoufness : for the word knowing, though active in its form ; is passive in its sense ; as is clear from the construction of the words, In his knowing to the many, shewing the faith to

the faints do not fin at all ; but that they do not commit sin with the full consent of the will; do not take pleasure and delight in it; do not make a trade of it, as unregenerate perfons do; and do not commit the fin unto death, 1 John v. 17, 18.

Objett. But seeing it is impossible to yield perfect obedience to the law, how is it consistent with the justice and wisdom of God to require of us that which we are not able to perform.

Ans. The laws of God are both possible and just; and there is no duty now required of us which he did not endow us with strength in our creation to perform. Yet in our fallen and corrupted estate, perfect obedience is become impracticable through our weakness and aversion to duty. And there can be no injustice in God to require what is impossible for us to perform, when the impossibility folely arises from our own fault. It is not God, but we ourselves, that have made the perfect observation of his laws impossible; and though we have wasted our stock, and are become bankrupts, yet he may in righteousness exact from us that debt of obedience which we justly owe him.

Object. But are not believers delivered both from the commanding and condemning power of the law, and how are they then bound to yield any obedience to it?

Ans. Believers are certainly delivered as well from the commanding as condemning power of the law, considered only as it is the covenant of works, which requires obedience

be the faith of God's eleet, Tit. i. 1. The infinitive active or gerund, is used for the paffive frequently, which phraseology our own language bears ; as Gen. iv. 13. Psal. xlii. 4. 3d. & cxix. 4. (5.) The time of their justification ? not from eternity, but in the very instant of their believing In his knowing. (6.) The nature of justification, viz. a declaring or pronouncing righteous, according to what is really found, and judicially imputed or reckoned, (Jatzdik tzaldik), He fball make righteous a righteous one. (7.) The free accefs which all have to this privilege : For the words are not in vain ranged in this order; In his knowing ; my fervant fball make righteous a righe teous one, &c. This is a general truth, Whosoever will know Christ shall be righteous, and legally made righteous, before the Lord': though in the mean time, it is the many only who will know him eventually. Tamim, found. The import of this word is whole and entire, all of a piece unblemished: So by it is expressed a whole day, Josh. x. 13. and the quality of a sacrifice ás without lemish, in the ordinary style of the law, as Lev: i. 3. ; and fo is applied to God's work, Deut. xxxii, 4. ; and his way, 2 Sam. xxii. 31. VOL. III. No. 25.


to it in order to justification; but they are by no means delivered from it as it is the law of Christ, or a rule of duty. For the moral law is the eternal rule of righteousness, a transcript of the divine perfections, which every believer is bound to copy after, and to apply to the blood of Jesus for pardon, in fo far as he falls short of obeying it: for without holiness no man shall see the Lord. Personal holiness is as necessary to the poffeffion of glory, or to a state of perfect holiness and happiness, as is the morning-light to the noon-day warmth and brightness; as is a reasonable soul to a wife, healthy, strong, and full-grown man; as an antecedent is to a consequent ; as a part is to the whole ; and as motion is necessary to evidence life. And the ten commandments, being the substance of the law of nature, a representation of God's image, and a beam of his holiness, behoved, for ever, unalterably to be a rule of life to mankind, in all possible states, conditions, and circumstances. Nothing but the utter destruction of human nature, and its ceasing to be, could divest them of that office; fince God is unchangeable in his image and holiness. Hence their being a rule of life to Adam and his posterity, had no dependence on their becoming the covenant of work: but they would have been that rule, though there never had been any such covenant: yea, whatever covenant was introduced, whether of works or of

grace, and whatever form might be put upon them, they behoved still to remain the rule of life. No covenant, no form whatsoever, could ever prejudice this their royal dignity.

V. I shall give the reason of this dispensation. God could make the saints perfect in the moment of conversion. He does it not. So it seems good in his fight. Many things are said to account for this; but what is most satisfying is, that it doth exalt the freedom of grace and the power of it most, Eph. ii. 4. 7. “ But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great

love wherewith he loved us—That in the ages to come he might fhew the exceeding riches of his grace, in his kindness towards us through Christ Jesus.” The more fins are pardoned to a sinner, he is the deeper in Christ's debt. The faster the root of fin appears in one's nature, the more appears


grace in rooting it up. It is surely the glory of our great Pilot, that he brings the broken ship to land, through so

the power

many hazards.

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