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to his righteousness, Rom. x. 3. * This receiving and resting upon Christ for salvation is in many places called believing in, or trusting on, Christ as our Saviour t.

VI. I am to shew, what is the end of these acts of faith,

ee the nature and acts of faith more largely opened and illustrated in the author's View of the Covenant of Grace, head 6. The way of inflating finners personally and savingly in the Covenant of Grace.

† Now, in order to illustrate the nature of faith, considered as believing in or trusting on God, and the way of a finner's juftification in his fight, it may not be improper to insert here the two following notes on Gen. xv. 6. “ And he believed in the Lord, and he counted it to him for righ. teousness,” taken from the author's manuscript work on the first twenty, three chapters of Genesis, above referred to, p. 232.

Now he trusted in Jehovah i. e. Now Abram trusted in Jehovah (who was the Lord promising, as well as the Lord promifed), not only believing his word spoken to him at this and other times, but also refting in him, and relying upon him, for all contained in the promise, and especially the salvation of the Messias, which was the chief thing in it. The whole verse is a parenthesis, in which Mofes occasionally shews how Abram entertained the promise, from the first time it was made to him, Now, faith he, Abram trusted in Jehovah, viz. all along, and so at this time, Rom. iv. 3. Gr. For, what faith the fcripture ? Now Abraham bea lieved God. Jam. ii. 2. And the fcripture was fulfilled, which faith, Now Abraham believed God. Comp. the preceding and following verfe of this chapter. This is the first place wherein faith is expressly spoken of. V'be' min, and he trusted. The formal fignification of H'min, is to truft: for so it may be rendered every where ; and so our translators do render it, Judg. xi. 20. Job iv. 18. xv. 15. 31. & xxiv. 22 marg. Mic. vii. 5. All believing is trufting ; but all trusting is not believing, as will appear anon. Accordingly H'min is more extensive than believing; for the object of it is a thing; as well as a rational agent, the only proper object of believing. Thus, wonderful works, Psal. lxxvii. 32. one's life, Deat. xxvij. 66. & Job xxiv. 32. and a beaf, Job xxxix. 12. are, by this word, said to be prufted in, which cannot well be said to be believed in. The construction of the word

natively leads to this notion of it. It is ordinarily constructed with to, as Gen. xlv. 26. He trusted not to them, or in, as here, He trusted in Jehovah : fometimes with a noun fimply, and an infinitive, as Judg. xi. 20. Shion trusted not even Israel to pass in his bounds. And finally, as H’min, Emeth, Omnah, Emun &c. are akin, as branches of one root; so are the words, he trusted, truth, a truth, trueness, &c. ; answering unto them, in our language. The Greeek pisleuo, in the New-Testament use of it, is of the same import, fignifying to trust : for so it may be rendered every where ; and so it must be rendered in several texts, as John ii. 24. Fefus did not trust himself to them. Rom. iii. 2. They were trusted the oracles of God, i. e. trusted with them. So 1 Cor. ix. 17. 1 Theff. ii. 4. 1 Tim. i. 11. How Hʼmin, being in Hiphil, comes to signify to trust, is best accounted for by allowing the phraseology to be elliptical, the conjugate It is for salvation, Christ's whole falvation. (1.) Salvation from fin, Matth. i. 21. “ He shall fave his people from their

(2.) From wrath, 1 Theff. i. ult.“ Which delivereth us from the wrath to come; from the guilt, defilement, dominion, and indwelling of fin, So it is for justification and

fins.

noun being understood. So it is q. d. Hmin emunah, He trusted a trust, or trusting : and the sense of that is, He exercised trust or faith ; as to plant forth plant, and to feed feed, Gen. i. 11. is to bring forth plant, and seed, or to yield them. The ellipsis of the conjugate noun is usual, as in Hizriang, Hiskil, &c. chap. iii. 6. ; and of it there is a double indication in this text. One is the pointing of this word with a distinctive. Comp. 1 Kings xxi, 14. They sent forth (fup. a messenger) unto Jezebel. Ir. i. 17. Plead (sup, the plea) of the widow. The other is the prounoun it, in the latter hemistich, which relates to trust or faith. Now, to trust to is to believe : and accordingly the object of it is always a person, as chap. xlv. 26. forecited; or else a word, as 1 Kings x. 7. I trusted not to the Speeches. If. liii, 1. Who hath trusted to our hearing, i. e. word heard : the which comes all to one; the word or speech being always pronounced by a person, and the person believed in respect of his word. To trust in, is not only to believe a competent object ; but to rest in and rely upon, the perfon, word, or thing trufted, as firm and sure, for the effect for which he or it is trufted. Thus Achifb trusted in David, 1 Sam. xxvii

. 12. (not only believing his word, ver. 10. but resting and relying on him, as one trufleth in a friend, (Mic. vii

. 5.), saying, he hath made his people Ifrael utterly to abhor him, therefore he shall be my fervant

So the people

for ever. brought through the Red Sea, trusted in Mofes, Exod. xiv. ult. relying on, and committing themselves to, his conduct: And on the same occasion, they trusted in God's Speeches, Psal. cvi. 12. relying on them with confidence. And thus the unicorn cannot be trusted in (i. e. relied upon) for bringing home one's feed, Job xxxix. 12. That the apoftles Paul and James, in the passages above cited, retain the Seventy's reading of this text, Now Abraham trusted to God, will not evince a perfect identity of the phrases trufling to, and trusting in God; fince it is undeniable, that the in{pired penmen, in many passages of the Old Testament, adduced by them in the New, do not act the part of rigid translators : but it will evince them to be one in effect. From what is said, it appears, that according to the scripture-phraseology, or language of the Holy Ghoft, (1.) The nature of faith in general lies, in trusting, trusting a perfon, word, or thing. (2.) The nature of saving faith, lies in trusting, that is, resting in, and relying upon, the perfon, word, and thing, (proposed to it in the promise), as firm and fure, for the effect for which it is trusted. (3.) Trusting in the Lord is by the appointment of God, and the nature of the thing, necessarily conected with trusting to him ; comp. If. liii. 1. John iii. ult. (4.) It is not by the habit, but by an a& of faith, a finner is justified.

And he reckoned it to him, righteousness, i. e. And God, even Jehovah the Son, (see the note above, p. 183. fig. (1.), in whom Abram trusted, (hem. 1.), did treat that act of faith or trust in him, which Abram exerted, as if it had been fulfilling of the law, in which one could stand righteous before him, reputing and counting it to him for that effect, and justifying agree in the common notion of reckoning, which speaks a view of a thing in several particulars, and a practical judgment formed thereupon. And hence, I think, it is that the word is used, (5.) For contriving or devising, as artists do a piece of work, as Amos vi. 5. They have reckoned (i. e. devised) to them instruments of song. Tz'dakah, righteousness. Tzedek and Tz'dakah are both immediately derived from Tzadak (Kal), of which see the note above, p. 183. and accordingly signify righteousness : but with this difference, that Tzdakah sounds an acting, as if one might say, righteousing ; Tzedek, a quality, the principle or result of the former. Hence expound, Deut. xxiv. 13. To thee it shall be righteousness, (Tz'dakah), i. e. a doing or acting righteously, a righteous action, a good work, a conforming to the law. An evidence of this difference is, that Tz'dakah is often used in the plural number ; but Tzedek is never. For the former points at a thing, under the notion of a righteous action, or good work, of which kind there are many ; but the latter, at a thing, under the notion of a quality, viz. righteousness, which is but one, whatever be the number of the actions which it results from, or is productive of. Thus Judg. v. 11. The righteousnesses of Jehovah, are his righteous acts or works. If. lxiv. 5. All our righteousnesses are filthy rags, i. e. our good works have been as filthy rags. So If. xlv. 24. Only in Jehovah, to me he said, [are] righteousnesses and strength ; i. e. Only in Jesus Christ are good works, that will answer the demands of the law. Howbeit, the word is thus taken objectively, ačting for an ałtion or work. On the other side, balances of (Tzedek) righteousness, stones of righteousness, Lev. xix. 36. are balances and weights conform to the standard. Thus these two words, frequently occurring, howbeit their fignification may to come to one in effect, yet they do, in their formal notion, represent the thing

sanctification. And faith receives and rests on him alone for all these, Gal. ii. 16. Knowing that a man is not justified, by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ; that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the him, thereupon, in his fight. Vajjahh'sch’bheha, And he reckoned it. Of Hhaschab, to recokon. Accordingly Hbischfcheb (Pih.) is fully to reckon, as Lev. xxv. 50. Psal. cxliv. 3. Jon. i. 4. and Hithhhaschscheb (Hithp.) only once occurring, doth manifestly signify to reckon one's self, Num. xxiii. 9. Behold a people.... in (is é. among) the nations, shall not reckor itself ; i. e. a people which, &c. . This word is used, (1.) For counting and reckoning, as in matters of money, 2 Kings xxii. 7. It would not have been reckoned with them ; the silver. Lev. xxv. 50. And he shall fully reckon with his acquirer. (2.) For reputing or counting, as the Latin habeo, duco, as Neh. xiii. 13. They were reckoned faithful. (3.) For regarding, prizing, making a valuable account of a person or thing, So it is used, If. ii. 22. xiii. 17. xxxiii. 8. & liii. 3. Thus, reckoners of his name, Mal. iii. 16. are those who valued and made a becoming account of it. (4.) For judging, thinking, or accounting fo and fo of a thing, as If. x. 7. His heart will not so reckon, viz. that he is the rod, staff, and sent, of God, ver. 5, 6.; concluding concerning it, as Jon. i. 4. It fully reckoned; for to be broken, i. e. fully laid its account therewith. All these

law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified. So it is a going out of one's self to Christ for all.

VII. I come now to consider the ground and warrant of faith. This is the gospel-offer. (1.) The finner has his invitation, Il. lv. 1. “Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy and eat, yea come, buy wine and milk without money, and without price.” (2.) The declaration of God's good pleasure in their so doing, John vi. 29. “ This is the work of God,

under different schefes. Accordingly the righteousness of Christ imputed to believers, is expressed by each of them. His righteousness (Tizidkatho) is declared and preached, Psal. xxii. ult. : and he is Jehovah (Tzidkenu) our righteousness, Jer. xxiii. 6.: the former proposing his righteousness

, as the fulfilling of the law; the latter, as conformity to the law, arising therefrom. As the word Hhaschabh is used for devising, chap. vi. 5. it is sometimes constructed, as here, with L' to or for, denoting the party for whom the thing is devised, as Amos vi. 5. ; or the end for which, as Gen. 1. 20. But since faith cannot be said to be devised righteousness, that sense of the word, which at best is but secondary, can have no place here. But for clearing the import of this weighty expression, used in the text, according to the scripture-phraseology, it will be worth the while to inquire into the several phrases, formed with the word Hhafchabh, in the notion of reckoning which is the formal notion of it. I. A person is said to le reckoned With others, i. e. classed with them, and the same account made of him as of them. Thus, Psal. lxxxviii. 5. the Pfalmift was reckoned with them that

go down to the pit, his case accounted hopeless, even as theirs. II. To reckon one person or thing as another, is to make a like account of them as of the other, and so to treat them after the like manner. Thus Job's friends thought they were reckoned as beasts, Job xviii. 3. ; and he himself thought, he was reckoned as an enemy of God, chap. xix. ll. and darts are reckoned as stubble by the leviathan, chap. xli. 21-29ths. So Num. xviii. 27. Pfal. xliv. 23. If. v. 28. & xl. 15. Hof. viii. 12. III. To reckon one thing for another, is to account it to be that thing : Job Xxxv. 2. Haft thou reckoned this for judgment, i. e. reckoned this to be judgment. So Judah reckoned Tamar for an harlot,, Gen. xxxviii. 15. Eli, Hannah for a drunken woman, 1 Sam. i. 13. Job, according to Elihu, reckoned God for his enemy, i. e. to be his enemy, Job xxxiii. 10. Thus to be reckoned for righteousness, Pfal. cvi. 31, is to be reckoned to be righteousness. So this third phrase falls in with, and is equivalent to the IV. here used by Moses. That is, two terms being proposed, the one is said to be reckoned THE OTHER, as faith reckoned righteousness. Concerning this phraseology, Obf. 1. It is used of reckoning a thing, what in reality and in very deed it is, antecedently to the reckoning. Thus the treasurers were reckoned faithful, Neh. xiii: 13. as indeed they were ; and for that cause Nehemiah put them into that office : the houses in unwalled villages were to be reckoned upon the field of the land, Lev. xxv. 31. as they were indeed, not being separated from the field by a town-wall: a fool holding his peace is reckoned wise, Prov. xvii. 28. and so he is in that point ; the fruitful field shall be reckoned for a forest, If. xxix. 17. and so it really is now, and is truly fo reckoned ; namely, the Jews, sometime God's people, but now rejected. The land of the Ammonites, faith the text, Deut. ii. 20. would have been reckoned a land of giants, i. e. formerly it used to be

believe on him whom he hath sent.” And, lastly, his peremptory command, 1 John iï. 23. “ And this is his com

that ye

so reckoned : and justly ; for the giants, adds the text, dwelt therein in old time ; however, it neither was so, nor was it so reckoned in Moses' time. The Emims would have been reckoned giants, ver. 11. : and justly fo ; for they were tall as the Anakims, ver. 10. The scope of the two laft passages is, to confirm the Israelites in the faith of their conquest of Canaan, notwithstanding of the Anakims there. For this caufe Mofes fhews them, that the Zamzummims were driven out before the Ammonites, and the Emims before the Moabites, though both the one and the other were reckoned giants. Bnt if they were not really what they were reckoned to be, these instances were nothing to the purpose they are adduced for. And thus the fact of Phinehas was reckoned for righteousness, Psal. cvi. 31. ; i. e. reckoned a righteous action, pleasing to God; which it really was, being done in faith: and hereby it is declared to be so, for an obvious reason, viz. that otherwise men would have been apt to have condemned it. It is without cause alledged, that the text says, It was reckoned, righteousness for generation and generation ; which it was not, being his own personal deed, and not the deed of any of his posterity. For the text Itands thus : And it was reckoned to him for righteousness : for generation and generation ; even to perpetuity; i. e. it was reckoned to him righteoufness: [it was reckoned fo] for generation and generation ; even to perpetuity : A token of which was, the priesthood’s being continued in his family, from generation to generation. Obf. 2. This phrase is used of reckoning a thing, what in very deed it is not, neither prior to the reckoning, nor pofterior to it. And in this case, it either, 1. Bears a mistake, which takes place only where the reckoner is capable to form a judgment, but witbal is fallible. Thus did Judah’s reckoning of Tamar bear a mistaken judgment, Gen. xxxviii. 15. ; Eli's of Hannah, 1 Sam. i. 13. ; the Jews of Christ, while they reckoned him stricken, smitten of God, Il. liii. 4. ; i. e. an object of God's peculiar hatred, while he was indeed his beloved Son. And such would be the judgment of one, who would reckon the deep hoar bairs, Job xli. 24-32ds. which without question it is not. Or elle, 2. The meaning is no more, but that the reckoner treats the thing as if it were that other thing. And thus it is always in three cases. (i.) In the case of agents incapable of forming a judgment. So the leviathan reckons iron for jtraw, Job. xli. 19-27ths, which doubtless it is not ; but he treats it as if it were straw. (2.) In the case of fallible judges, in points not liable to mistake. Thus Laban's own daughters were by him reckoned strangers, Gen. xxxi. 15. ; and Job a stranger, by his own domeftics, Job xix. 15. ; and Zion's fons, earthen pitchers, by the enemies, Lam. iv. 2. : in all which cases, there could be no mistaking of the persons reckoned for such persons and things ; but these persons were so treated as if they had been taken for such persons and things. (3.) In the case of the infallible Judge. So If. xl. 17. The nations are reckoned of him less than (Tohu, Gen. i. 2.) emptiness : not that they are so in very deed ; for they are creatures made the fixth day, after

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