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DISCOVERIES OF THE LAST HALF
STEAMBOATS, RAILROADS, AND TELEGRAPHS.
E live in an age of wonders. The last
half century has witnessed a succesQUEEN :
sion of the most mighty events, and Love hath built this sylvan throne,
the most astounding discoveries, which Canopied with leaves and sky;
have ever been made. In 1800 there was Bid your hearts her power own,
not a single steamboat in the world. Our Bring your gifts, your songs raise high. inland seas and noble rivers were lying,
grand and silent, in primeval loneliness, ATTENDANTS :
except when enlivened by the clumsy baAye, our gifts, our songs we'll bring,
teau, or the rude flat-boat. “Gayly singing on the green,”
In 1807 Fulton launched the Clermont, Now accept our offering,
which made a passage to Albany in thirtyMay-day Queen, our May-day Queen.
two hours. At that time the mode of A MAID OF HONOR:
travel was by schooners and sloops, which Guardian Spirits, one, two, three,
were frequently six days on the passage.
The improvement was certainly great; but Are hovering round thy throne;
what would Fulton now say, to see the BEAUTY, Love, and HARMONY, Blend their wings as one.
steamboats running the same distance in Around, above, beside, beneath,
eight hours, and some of them large
enough to stow the Clermont on their forFragile beauty loves to dwell,
ward decks. Floating on the zephyr's breath,
No steamboat had broken the waters of Or glancing on the hill.
the Mississippi previous to 1815. The voyLove doth nestle in our hearts,
age from Cincinnati to New Orleans was
an undertaking which occupied more time And never thence should roam;
than a steamboat would now take to cirBalm to sorrow she imparts,
cumnavigate the globe. At present, it is Nor lets the tempest come.
calculated that there are no less than She hangs a rainbow when it lowers
3,000 steamboats in America. 'Neath the darkly threatning fold,
A person can travel a greater distance Changes storm to gentle showers,
in thirty days now, by steamboat, than he And bids the heart be bold.
could in one hundred days in 1800. Just Harmony doth robe her here,
fancy Benjamin Franklin being almost
wrecked in going from New York to Amboy, With garments of the day;
and the vessel which he was in occupySweetly fills the listening ear,
ing thirty-two hours on the passage, a disWhile soaring far away.
tance which is accomplished every day by The spheres take up the awful strain,
our steamboats in one and a half hours: a Cherubs list it as they sing;
great change, truly ! Seraphs raise the sound again,
In Europe, steamboats were unknown And Heaven's high arches ring. until 1811, and no sea was regularly navi
gated by them until 1818. The progress Beauty gathers here to-day,
of Marine Navigation is remarkable. In And Love her offering brings; 1838 no steamship had ventured across Swell our souls with Harmony,
the stormy Atlantic to establish ocean naviThe earth with gladness rings. gation. Now we have communication every We all rejoice ; who would refrain ? week with Europe, by regular steam mails. Joy doth lend a rainbow here
If the last half century had given us no One we love to-day is Queen,
other invention than the steamboat, that And Heaven's best gifts are near. alone, considering its importance, is enough
to immortalize it. In 1800 there was no, now in operation in Europe and America. steamship in the wide world. Where is . But neither Asia nor Africa can yet boast the country now in which they are not of a single line completed. seen, and where they are not exercising a: What were the old Roman roads in most important influence ?
comparison to the footpaths of our iron On the Hudson, Mississippi, on all our horses? In 1835 there were only fifteen lakes, rivers, and seas, and on all the oceans miles of railway in the State of New York of the world ; on that sea where the waters now there are about 1,500, and a traveler rolled
up in walls to allow Moses and the can journey as far in one day as he could', Hebrews to pass dry-shod ; on the ancient in eight days fifteen years ago. Nile, where Cleopatra's galley spread its Among the grand discoveries of the last silken sails to the breeze, on the Ganges half century, the Electric Telegraph stands of Indus in the East, and the Sacramento out in bold relief. It has given to map in the West, there now may be seen nu- the power of transmitting his thoughts to, merous monuments to the inventor of the his fellow-man, thousands of miles distant, steamboat ;—the steamship “ Rules the in a few seconds.
“ Rules the in a few seconds. “Electricity leaves her Waves.”
thunderbolt in the sky, and, like Mercury Look at that Iron Horse, moving out of dismissed from Olympus, acts as letterhis stable, screaming and panting to start carrier and message-boy.” on his journey. That is the steam engine In 1837, when Morse first proclaimed in its most perfect state; it is a near ap- that he could write messages by electricity proach to the spiritual and physical com- at any distance, wise people shrugged their bination. Behold how easily he drags the shoulders, and looked with blank unbelief ponderous train, at the rate of thirty miles upon such a daring proposition; and, when an hour; thus conveying hundreds of pas- the proposal was before Congress, in 1843, sengers, in concert and safety, to a distance to appropriate $30,000 to test his system which, but a few years ago, would have of telegraphing, it met with stern oppositaken them nearly a whole day to accom- tion. plish, by stages.
In 1844 the first line of telegraph was Only a few months since, the Queen of completed in our country, between Wash England was transported from the interior ington and Baltimore; and since that time of Scotland to London, a distance of four the progress of telegraph lines has been hundred miles, in ten hours. In 1800 the most surprising and astounding. All the same journey could not have been accom- important cities in our Union are linked plished in less than eight days. If the together by the lightning tracks ;. and steamboat has revolutionized intercommu- wherever we travel, there we behold, susnication by river and sea, the locomotive pended on slender poles, those attenuated has done more to revolutionize travel by threads, along which the lightning fleets, land.
with messages of love, hope, fear, or gaina, In 1800 there was not a single locomo- The telegraph has produced most astive in the world, nor for nearly twenty- tonishing changes in the modes of conductnine years afterward. On the 6th day of ing business. A few years ago, what October, 1829, the first locomotive, Rocket, wear and tear of horse flesh it required to ran on the Liverpool and Manchester Rail- get news for our daily papers ! What a way, at the average rate of fifteen miles trouble and delay there was in getting the per hour. From that moment we date the news from Halifax during the winter seacommencement of a new and most astonish son! Now what a change ! ing era in the history of discovery.
A steamship arrives at Halifax, Boston, In England there are now 5,600 miles or New York this morning, and the Euroof railway constructed, and as many more pean news is published in the New Orleans proposed, at a cost of more than $500,- papers in the evening. The speeches de000,000. In the United States there are livered in the halls of Congress to-day,are about 8,000 miles of railway; and there delivered to the readers of the newspapers is probably about 30,000 miles of railroad in all our important cities next morning.**
Qur: astronomers, “ pale watchers of the time, suggests all the particular exemplifirolling spheres,” employ the lightning pen :cations, or any particular exemplification to register their observations.
at once leads to the general truth. This The whole science of Voltaişm, Electro---kind' of understanding has an immense and i magnetism, and Electrotyping, are trophies, decided superiority over those confused of the discoveries made during the last fifty: heads in which one fact is piled upon anyears. Electro-magnetism has been 'em-other, without the least attempt at classiployed to separate metals from their ores, fication and arrangement. to drive machinery, to make huge bars of Some men always read with a pen in iron dance in mid-air, like the fabled coffin their hand, and commit to paper any new of Mohammed; and what it may accom- thought that strikes them; others trust to plish in fature times, it is not possible to memory for its re-appearance. Which of predict:
these is the best method in the conduct of
the understanding, must, I should suppose, The preceding article is condensed from the depend a great deal upon the particular Scientific American,” The subject will be con: understanding in question. Some men can típued in another number.
Da-teau', bat-to',) a long, narrow light-boat; do nothing without preparation ; others *ntach wider in the middle than toward the ends, little with it; some are fountains, some
Schoon er, a vessel with two masts. Sloop, a "vessel.
reservoirs. - Selected.
THE COW TREE. from Volta, an Italian, who first made the apparatus for accumulating galvanic electricity. It is a branch
n the parched side of a rock 'on the of electrical science, and embraces galvanism. E-lec'. mountain of Venezuela, grows a tree tro-mag'-net-ism, magnetism produced by means of electricity. E-lec'tro-typ'ing, the art of depositing
with a dry and leathery foliage, its metals, held in solution by galvanism, on other large woody roots scarcely penetrating inmetals ; thus it is a perfect process of gilding. By to the ground. For several months in the it impressions of medals, coins, &c., may be copied wita perfect accuracy.]
year its leaves are not moistened by a shower, its branches look as if they were
dead and withered; but when the trunk * THE ART OF THINKING.
is bored, a bland and nourishing milk flows
from it. Ne of the best modes of improving in It is at sunrise that the vegetable foun
the art of thinking, is to think over tain flows most, freely.. At that time the some subject before you read upon blacks and natives are seen coming from
and then to observe after what man- all parts provided with large bowls to rener it has occurred to the mind of someceive the milk, which grows yellow 'and. great master"; you will then observe wheth-thickens at its surface. Some empty their er you have been too rash or too timid; vessels on the spot, while others carry what you have omitted, and what you have 7: them to their children. One imagines he exceeded ; and by this process you will sees the family of a shepherd who is disinsensibly catch a great manner of viewing tributing the milk of his flock. It is named . a question.
the palo de vaca, or cow tree.-Selected. It is right to study; not only to think when any extraordinary incident provokes
THE PEN AND THE PRESS. you to think, but from time to time to re- The Pen and the Press, bless'd alliance! combined view what has passed ; to dwell upon it, To soften the heart and enlighten the mind; and to see what trains of thought volun- For that to the treasures of knowledge gave birth, tărily: Bresent themselves to your mind. And this sent them forth to the ends of the earth;
It is a most superior habit of some minds Their battles for truth were triumphant, indeed, to refer all the particular truths which And the rod of the tyrant was snapped like a reed. strilae them, to other truths more general; They were made to exalt us, to teach us, to bless, so that their knowledge is beautifully Those invincible brothers—the Pen and the Press. methodized; and the general truth, at any
J. C. PRINCE.
BY SIDNEY SMITH.
the State, consists of a shield, on which and about 200 miles in breadth: The is represonted a peninsula extending into a other peninsula, lying between Lake Sy
Jake; with the sun rising ;'and, a man stand- perior on the north, and Lakes Huron anel ing on the peninsula, .with a gun in his Michigan on the south, is about 330 ngile hand, while behind him is aofag suspended; în length, from east to west
, and, fift from a pole; and a tent near:
miles of mean breadth. Below the. escutchean, on a band, oriy : The state contains 66,000 square miles tabel, are the words, Si.quæris peninsulum and is divided into seventy-two aunties ancnam, circumspice. If you seek a The present population is 397,509. Thirty delightful peninsula, behold it.” On the years ago this state contained less that
upper part of the escutcheon is the word ten thousand inhabitants. During the last TUEBOR—- I will defend it.” The sup- ten years the population has neatlyidous
porters are moose.deer, natives of the for- led. ests of Michigan.
The first settlement in Michigan was The çrest is the American Eagle, hold made at Detroit, in 1670, by the Tbench, ing in his mouth, a' scroll bearing the mot- from Canada. The colony was resigned to, E pluribus unum. Around the border: to the United States in 1796, and formed. ...of the state arė thė words, THE GREAT into a territory in 1805. In 1836 it was
SEAL OF THE SȚATE OF MICHIGAN, with: admitted into the Union 'as a state. The the numerals, M.DCCC.XXX.V., the date capital is Lansing, situated on Grand River, of the formation of the state government in Ingham County. Five years ago this
The State of Michigan consists of two location was hidden far away from Civilis peninsulas. The largest, situated between zation, in the deep forest. Three years.d. the Lakes Erie, St. Clair, and Huron on since burning heaps of wood and dow
rude shanties marked the place where now the fury of the waves, driven by the powstands the capital of the state. Detroit, erful north winds which sweep the lake, formerly the capital, is the largest town, they have been worn out into numerous and contains 21,000 inhabitants.
bays, caverns, and indentations. From a The southern peninsula, wbich includes distance these present an array of dilapithe principal settled portions of the state, dated battlements, and desolate towers. has a belt of heavily-timbered flat land As a young state, Michigan has done around the three sides, which border on much for the interests of education. It the lakes. Inside of this the land gradu- has a permanent school-fund for the supally rises toward the center of the state, port of schools and libraries in all the disand becomes gently rolling. This central tricts. There has also been established region is covered with fine forests, oak a Normal School for the education of plains, and prairies. The largest and finest teachers. The University of Michigan, at prairies are found in the southern portion Ann Arbor, has departments of literature, of the state.
science, the arts, of law, and medicine. It The country is well adapted to agricul- is designed to have academic branches ture. Its principal staple productions are of the university in the principal towns wheat, Indian corn, oats, potatoes, barley, throughout the state. Several of these and maple sugar. Besides these, the soil have already been established. Besides is adapted to rye, flax, hemp, the grasses, this institution there is St. Phillip's Coland garden vegetables. No part of the lege, near Detroit. United States is better supplied with Michigan has about 370 miles of railaquatic fowls, fish, and wild game. The road completed, and many more internal forest trees are of great variety; among improvemonts projected. The governor of which the principal ones are the oak, this state is chosen by the people, once in hickory, sugar maple, beech, ash, elm, two years. The elections are held the
first Tuesday in November. The legislaThe northern peninsula embraces the ture meets annually on the first Monday mineral regions and copper mines of Lake in January. Superior. Its principal inhabitants are The inhabitants of the peninsula state those who have gone thither for mining are chiefly from New York and New Engpurposes. It is only about five years since land. Rapid strides have been made in these mining operations were commenced; subduing her majestic forests and developthousands of tons of copper have already ing her internal resources. From the enbeen obtained. Some of the best copper terprise and industry which abounds there, in the world is found in these mines. the country is fast assuming the appear
It is on the southern shores of Lake Su- ance of an old-settled state. perior that the celebrated Pictured Rocks exist. They consist of a range of rocky
THE SAFEGUARD OF YOUTH. bluffs along the shore, toward the eastern end of the lake. Stretching away for If you would keep pure the heart of miles, they form so complete a barrier to your child, and make his youth innocent the navigator that not even a canoe can and happy, surround him with objects of effect a landing. Occasionally, however, interest and beauty at home. an accessible point has been found by the If you would prevent a restless spirit ; Indian, where he has made, on the rocks, if you would save him from that lowest rude drawings, recording Indian exploits, species of idolatry, “the love of money,” and fragments of their history,
and teach him to love what is lovely, Beheld from the lake, these rocks pre- adorn your dwellings, your places of worsent sublime and commanding views. They ship, your school-houses, your streets and are composed of light-grey sandstone, and public squares, with trees, and hedges, and rise in an almost perpendicular wall, from lawns and flowers, so that his heart may the water, to the height of from one to early and ever be impressed with the love three hundred feet. By being exposed to of Him who made them all.